FIGURE 6 | Schematic drawing of the regional environmental settings favoring UIBs. The present and future different environmental settings for upwelling. UIBS offers flexible business and management studies at the Undergraduate (Bachelor/BBA) and (Post)Graduate (Master/MBA and Doctor/DBA) level leading to private. Acronym, Definition. UIBS, United International Business Schools (Barcelona, Spain). UIBS, United Business Solutions Ltd (Cyprus).

: Uibs

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Thematic video

UIBS faculty interview with Professor Frank Hendrickx - June 2019

Uibs -

ARlogoAnnu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1990. 28: 37-70
Copyright © 1990 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved



3.1 The Unidentified Infrared Bands

The realization (150, 151) that diffuse dust produces strong unidentified infrared emission bands (UIBs) in the 3.3-11.3 µm range, as well as an associated continuum, has stimulated much research within the last five years. The carriers of the UIBs are surely important components of the ISM. The UIBs have been discussed extensively 3, 94, 133, 157). Some of the main features of the UIBs are:

  1. The strongest bands are at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 µm. These wavelengths all closely correspond to the C-H or C-C bond vibrations in aromatic (benzene-ring) structures. The simplest substances that can produce these bands are simple, planar molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but other, less well ordered configurations of carbon and hydrogen can also produce them (10, 142). A suggestive fit to the bands is provided by absorption from vitrinite (125), partially ordered graphite from coal. A mixture of PAHs can reproduce all of the UIBs, both weak and strong (57, 180).
  2. Diffuse UIB emission, found throughout the Galaxy (59), is responsible for 10-20% of the total radiation from dust. UIBs and the associated continuum dominate the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) filter responses at 12 and 25 µm (141), and are presumably responsible for the galactic ``cirrus'' emission in these filters (12).
  3. The bands are also found in planetary nebulae, ``reflection'' nebulae, H II regions, extragalactic objects (27, 29, 171, and references therein), and carbon-rich or interstellar-dust environments, but not in dust produced by oxygen-rich objects. There is a direct relationship between the C/O ratio in planetary nebulae and the strength of the UIBs (29).
  4. The wavelength of the 11.3-µm UIB shows that the hydrocarbons are not saturated with H. This band is due to the out-of-plane C-H bending, and occurs at 11.6-12.5 µm if there are two C-H bonds on the same aromatic ring, and 12.4-13.3 µm for three (94). The indicated amount of H coverage on the outer rings is 20-30%. Observational selection of relatively intense emission regions has meant that rather high radiation fields and subsequent dehydrogenation, are favored; perhaps the 11-13 µm emission from low-radiation environments will indicate more than one C-H bond on the same ring.
  5. The bands are excited by the absorption of a single UV photon by the carrier. This is easy to understand (133) if the carriers (planar PAHs or three-dimensional carbon structures no larger than about 5 Å) float freely in space, so that a single photon can provide the energy required to emit the UIBs. The degree of excitation suggests that roughly 50 carbon atoms are required, with an upwards size range. If the carriers are attached to larger grains, the absorbed energy must be localized within a 5-Å region for the time required for the emission (of the order of a second). This process requires an exceedingly small thermal coupling.
  6. The carriers of the UIBs are modified significantly by environment and history. The IRAS 12-µm response shows that the UIBs are not present in regions of very high radiation fields (13, 141), demonstrating that the carrier can be modified or destroyed by intense radiation. The wavelength of at least the 7.7-µm UIB is significantly different in planetary nebulae (where the carriers are newly produced by the carbon-rich material from the star) than in H II regions and reflection nebulae (where the carrier was presumably in the ISM before any interactions with the star presently causing the excitation).
  7. PAHs would be mostly ionized in the diffuse ISM, since their first ionization potential is < 13.6 eV. Up to now, many laboratory studies of PAHs have, necessarily, involved only neutral molecules.
  8. An individual PAH has strong discrete absorption bands in the visual through the UV, and there are no such features observed in interstellar extinction. A mixture of PAHs of varying sizes and structural arrangements produces continuous absorption.


Источник: https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Mathis/Mathis3_1.html

Complex organic matter in space: about the chemical composition of carriers of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) and protoplanetary emission spectra recorded from certain astrophysical objects

In this communication we present the basic concept that the pure PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) can be considered only the ideal carriers of the UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands), the emission spectra coming from a large variety of astronomical objects. Instead we have proposed that the carriers of UIBs and of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) emission spectra are much more complex molecular mixtures possessing also complex chemical structures comparable to certain petroleum fractions obtained from the petroleum refining processes. The demonstration of our proposal is based on the comparison between the emission spectra recorded from the protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe) IRAS 22272+ 5435 and the infrared absorption spectra of certain 'heavy' petroleum fractions. It is shown that the best match with the reference spectrum is achieved by highly aromatic petroleum fractions. It is shown that the selected petroleum fractions used in the present study are able to match the band pattern of anthracite coal. Coal has been proposed previously as a model for the PPNe and UIBs but presents some drawbacks which could be overcome by adopting the petroleum fractions as model for PPNe and UIBs in place of coal. A brief discussion on the formation of the petroleum-like fractions in PPNe objects is included.

Источник: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14979641/
(Updated link)

But, if you want to become a property developer, why not study property development or real estate?

PS Here's a great programme, free, in Finland: http://www.mastersportal.eu/students/browse/programme/420/real-estate-investment-and-finance.html

[Edited by Duncan on Aug 27, 2019]

Obviously theres no need for them to change their business model: it relies on recruiting people who cannot get into accredited MBAs, and then giving them worthless degrees. It must be very profitable!

Given the choice between a degree from the University of Antwerp, a real and respected university, and a 'degree' which is from a non-university business that doesn't have the right t issue degrees, then the choice is obvious.

However, those are not the only choices. There are cheap MBAs from real universities. There are over 100 MBAs from real European universities which cost !0,000 euro or less:
https://www.mastersportal.com/search/#q=di-242 tr-[5000,10000],[1000,5000],[500,1000],[0,500]

Elearning Università degli Studi di Brescia

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Источник: https://elearning.unibs.it/

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