at home dna test near me

Orchid PRO-DNA offers DNA identification tests for paternity, maternity and other family relationships, for curiosity, legal and immigration purposes. After years of searching, DNA tests, social media and For most of my childhood, Mum told me another guy was my father, a man I never. DNA Testing with the CRI Genetics™ home DNA test kit will let you discover your true ancestry & family history. Buyer Ranking's #1 Recommended Home DNA Test.

At home dna test near me -

Paternity Test


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A DNA paternity test is a scientific way to determine if a man is the true biological father of a child. A simple mouth swab is used to collect a small DNA sample from the alleged father and from the child and the samples are then sent to Cellmark’s specialist DNA laboratory for testing and analysis.

In the laboratory our scientists test the DNA samples with 24 ‘markers’ (for more information see our FAQs) to analyse the relationship of the people being tested. This produces extremely accurate results which will either exclude the man from paternity with 100% certainty or will indicate a paternal relationship with a very high level of confidence - usually in excess of 99.99%. When carrying out a paternity test, including a sample from the mother (as well as from the child and alleged father) will always provide a more conclusive result.

Please note that DNA at Home’s paternity test is what is termed a ‘curiosity test’ - this means that the results will not be accepted in UK courts, nor by the Child Maintenance service. If you are disputing paternity and require a test for legal purposes then please visit our legal DNA paternity testing site - www.cellmark.co.uk

As with all of our DNA relationship testing services we offer a Next Day DNA service at no extra cost.  This means that if all the DNA samples for your test arrive at our UK laboratory before 10am, we aim to send the test result to you by the end of the next working day by email.

DNA relationship testing can be a life changing event and we would urge that before ordering a test you think carefully about the potential outcomes and have considered if testing will be in the best interests of the child(ren) involved.

If you have any questions please call our customer services team free on 0800 043 1987.

Источник: https://www.dna-at-home.co.uk/order/father-child-paternity-test/

More Indians are taking home DNA tests but do they understand what their genes are telling them?

A year ago, Soheila Jalali ordered a home DNA test to establish her genetic predisposition to more than 100 medical conditions, including cancers of different organs, diabetes, heart attack and stroke. About three weeks after couriering her mouth swab sample to a genetic testing laboratory in Hyderabad, the 25-year-old biotechnologist received a “long report” in her inbox.

This was one email Jalali was terrified to open.

The report had red flags against the names of several diseases. “The red flags meant that I had a higher risk of developing those conditions in my lifetime,” said Jalali. One of the conditions was eye cancer. “I can’t do anything now to prevent it but I can take regular eye check-ups to pick the cancer early,” she said.

The risks flagged off in Jalali’s report are what are called “relative risks”. Based on her genetic make up Jalali has a higher chance of developing eye cancer but this is in no way a prediction that she will actually get eye cancer.

Doctors say that apart from taking preventive health check ups and making healthy lifestyle choices, there is very little a person can do to reduce risks of developing a condition to which they are genetically predisposed.

Jalali had decided to assess her rsk of developing several medical conditions even though she did not know of any family member with a genetically-linked medical condition that she was afraid to inherit. “I can prepare myself,” she said but admitted that the information made her panic at several times.

Like Jalali, many people have become curious about their medical predispositions because of increased access to personal genomics. Doctors feel that while some clients may be able to process the information well, others might panic without undrstanding what risk of “a potential fatal disease” means.

The Angeline Jolie effect

Predictive genetic testing or pre-symptomatic genetic testing became extremely popular after Hollywood actor Angelina Jolie underwent a double mastectomy following a genetic test which showed that she had mutation in a gene known as BRCA1 that increased her risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Jolie’s mother had died of cancer and Jolie underwent the procedure to reduce her chances of developing the condition.

Jolie’s decision stirred an ethical debate on the need for screening to look for genetic mutations which are associated with an increased risk of developing both chronic and life threatening medical conditions.

Doctors could recommend to a patient like Jolie, who has a strong history of cancer running in the family to take the test, but they are divided if people like Jalali with no history of genetically linked diseases need it. Many doctors feel that not everything a genetic test reveals about a person’s risk of developing a disease is “useful information.”

A genetic test is prognostic and not diagnostic in nature, said doctors. A diagnostic test will tell you whether the person taking the test has the disease that the doctor suspects on the basis of the symptoms the patient complains of. For instance, a diagnostic test will tell if the patient has high blood glucose level but a genetic test will look for the mutation in the gene responsible for increasing the person’s risk of developing diabetes.

Consumer direct testing companies mushrooming in India offer several predictive genetic tests that clients, not patients, can buy online. The company sends a testing kit to the client who couriers the DNA samples back. The client may prick his finger and send a dry blood sample or a cheek swab to the laboratory. “We extract the DNA from the sample and amplify it to look for mutations in the gene and biological markers to check the person’s risk of developing certain diseases,” said Anu Acharya, chief executive officer of Mapmygenome, a genetic testing laboratory.

It is well established that a mutation in BRCA1 gene increases risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but as medical genetics is evolving with doctors still identifying new genes and mutations which can be associated with the increase risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer and other diseases.

“You should know what you are looking for,” said Dr Jaya Vyas, consultant for genetic and molecular biology at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital in Mumbai. “You can’t really know all the genes under the sun.”

Vyas and her team do not offer predictive testing at the moment. “It (predictive testing) is not very clear at this stage,” she said.

Lack of Indian data

Another problem with predicting disease risk using genetic information in India is the lack of data. Acharya admitted that there is not enough data to predict several diseases. “Right now we have good Indian data for predicting diabetes and heart conditions,” she said.

Apart from looking for specific mutation in genes, doctors also look for structural changes in the gene, which Acharya explained are biological markers. “Indians with diabetes have some specific biological markers. So when we test a client who shows the presence of the same biological marker, we can conclude that he is at the risk of having diabetes at a later stage.”

In the absence of such data on genetic mutations and biological markers specific to the Indian population, laboratories rely on data generated by gene tests run among Caucasian population for instance, which many not be relevant or reliable. There are normal variations across ethnicity which will have to be taken into account, said Dr Girisha KM, professor and head of department of medical genetics at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University.

The biggest concern for Joshua M Sharfstein, associate dean of public health practice and training at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the US, is whether the data is accurate. “There are many unvalidated tests being offered to consumers,” he told Scroll.in in an email. “Tests that are invalid do not provide useful information.”

For Jalali that hardly matters. “Just because some doctors don’t understand how to interpret the data my test reveals, I cannot stop myself from getting the test,” she said. Jalali thinks that with each passing year, the science will progress in India and her report will help her to get the right treatment. “It might help my doctor to diagnose my condition faster because he knows that I am genetically prone to it.”

Hope versus hype

A genetic test, like the ones Mapmygenome offers, costs between Rs 4,000 for a single gene test and Rs 1.2 lakh for a more comprehensive genetic analysis comprising more than 100 gigabytes of genetic data. “There is too much information available,” warned Vyas. “You have to be cautious and sensitive and ready to accept it. I personally feel it is dangerous.”

However, the number of people taking these tests is only rising. “We are doing 15 times more tests that what we performed in 2014 when we started,” said Samarth Jain, chief executive officer of Positive Bioscience, a genetic testing laboratory in Mumbai.

Some families are ordering tests for minor children too. Chennai resident Vedant Raj Lohia, 19, and nine members from his family took the predictive genetic test. Lohia was worried about male pattern baldness, a pattern of receding hairline and a thinning crown that is caused by hormonal effects and might be genetically triggered.

“I know it is petty but I wanted to know,” said Lohia. “Fortunately, I don’t have it.” Even if Lohia had the possibility of developing baldness, there is very little he could do to prevent it.

“I just wanted to know. It is a relief,” he asserted.

Pranav Aman, a geneticist from New Castle University in the United Kingdom who runs a genetic testing laboratory called GeneBox, recalled 19 members of a family in Bangalore who took the test. “The youngest was a three-year-old,” he said. Apart from predicting the risk of diseases, Aman’s laboratory offers information “on the kind of exercise, sport a person can play depending on the genes they have.” Reports generated by Aman’s laboratory tells clients the kind of workout which will help them to “lose wight”.

“Some people can’t lose weight despite all the exercising because their genes are now allowing them,” he said. “People need to eat and exercise according to their genes.”

Apart from disease risk prediction, some DNA home tests provide information on the body’s responses to commonly used drugs. Vyas’s team runs test genetic test for cancer patients to find out what drug will work best for them depending on their genetic makeup. “This is helping cancer patients,” said Vyas. “If we know that the patient’s genes won’t allow the drug to work, we can put them on an alternate drug instead of wasting precious time.”

The tests Vyas’ lab runs are meant only for patients and are not sold to people who have not been been diagnised with disease. “They are only performed if the treating doctor prescribes it,” said Vyas.

But even Jalali’s home DNA test told her about her body’s response to 11 commonly used drugs to manage symptoms arising out of diabetes and cardiac conditions.

Understanding the data

As customers buy the tests online, they also receive the test result over email as Jalali did. There is an option where they can “discuss their report with a genetic counselor from the laboratory”. These reports could have life-altering consequences, said Vyas who believes that anyone taking a test should be given both pre and post-test counseling.

A study published in international medical journal PLOS said that doctors “did not observe short-term changes in behavior associated with the communication of an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes.”

“You may not be able to cope with what the test tells you,” said Girisha, who says personal genomics testing is often miss-selling of modern scientific advances.

Like Girisha, many doctors feel genetic tests should be performed only if a doctor prescribes them and for “medically actionable diseases”, which means the person can do something actively to reduce his risk of developing them. If a person finds out that he has an “elevated risk” of developing cardiovascular disease, he can adopt to healthy eating and exercising to reduce the risk. However, when Girisha counsels patients who look at genetic testing as “scientific astrology” he encourages them to have a healthy lifestyle irrespective of their gene tests. “You don’t need to get a gene test to start exercising,” he said.

Risk of genetic discrimination


Acknowledging the possibility of discrimination, the United States passed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in 2008 to protect Americans against any discrimination based on their genetic information when it comes to health insurance and employment.

Genetic testing laboratories in India are not governed by any specific legislation. They require the same set of permissions that a diagnostic laboratory performing blood glucose tests does.

Doctors in India are worried about the “social implications” for those who have high risk of developing life-threatening conditions. A doctor working as a general practitioner in Mumbai who did not want to be identified said that there was always the chance of such genetic tests being used against a person by his employer and insurer. “The business is too unregulated at the moment,” he said.

The Indian Council of Medical Research, apex body for regulating clinical research in India has not developed any guidelines to regulate genetic testing laboratories. “Personal genomics is at a very underdeveloped stage and companies are exploiting people by offering it,” said Dr Soumya Swaminathan, director general of Indian Council of Medical Research.

Barring certain conditions, Swaminathan said that there is no “real prediction these genetic tests can do”. She said that most diseases are multifactorial and multi-genetic in nature. “There are several genes responsible for developing Schizophrenia (a mental disorder),” she said.

Currently very few institutes in India have a courses on medical genetics. Most geneticists operating in India have foreign degrees. The Indian government has no system to recognise these foreign degrees.

It is not just regulation but the quality of results and interpretation that has also got doctors worried. As Girisha argues in favor of a qualified person to be performing and interpreting the test results in well informed individuals”.He explained with an analogy, “A four wheel vehicle can be a car or a tempo and that is why you need a qualified person to be performing and interpreting the test results”.

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Источник: https://scroll.in/pulse/827169/more-indians-are-taking-home-dna-tests-but-do-they-understand-what-their-genes-are-telling-them

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Everyone knows that Black Friday DNA test deals are top sellers every single year. People love to give them as gifts for Christmas or Chanukah. It makes sense, of course, since they’re so useful.

Some DNA tests give you insights into your health based on key indicators in your DNA. Others focus on your ancestry so you can see exactly where your family comes from. You can also find long-lost relatives, which is so cool!

If you’re planning to get a DNA test for yourself or as a gift this year, there are some deals that you definitely need to check out. The 23andMe Health + Ancestry DNA Test Kit normally sells for $199, but right now it’s down to the all-time low price of just $99. It’s the #1 best-selling DNA test on Amazon has it has never been cheaper!

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Black Friday DNA test deals in 2021

We can’t believe how many fantastic Black Friday 2021 deals are out there. It seems like every best-selling product out there has a deep discount right now. Top-sellers this year include laptops, TVs, and of course Instant Pots. But those are all things that people tend to buy for themselves.

When it comes to gifts, there’s nothing hotter right now than Black Friday DNA test deals. And this year, you can get all three of the best-selling tests at their lowest prices ever.

23andMe deals

Black Friday DNA test deals

23andMe’s Health + Ancestry DNA Test Kit is always the best-seller every single year. It regularly retails for $199, which seems steep, But it’s actually a terrific value for a DNA test that includes a whopping 150+ different reports on your health and ancestry. This test kit has a huge $100 discount right now for Black Friday. That means you can get them for $99 each instead of $199!

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The other really popular 23andMe test is the 23andMe Ancestry + Traits DNA Test Kit. It’s popular all year round at $99, but people really go nuts when there are Black Friday DNA test deals. Get one while it’s on sale, however, and you’ll only pay $79 per test.

Also of note, these are price discounts and not coupons. That means you can get as many as you want at discounted prices.

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AncestryDNA deals

Black Friday DNA test deals

Last but not least, the AncestryDNA: Genetic Ethnicity Test + 3-Month Membership is always a huge seller on Black Friday. And that will definitely be true again this year since it’s one of the best Black Friday DNA test deals out there. This test returns tons of data and it includes a 3-month Ancestry World Explorer membership. All that typically costs $149, but right now it’s down to $89 for Black Friday.

Or, if you want to spend even less, the AncestryDNA: Genetic Ethnicity Test on its own is only $48. It normally sells for $118 and this deal is a new all-time low price!

AncestryDNA: Genetic Ethnicity Test + 3-Month Ancestry World Explorer MembershipPrice:$89.00Amazon Prime logoBuy NowAvailable from Amazon, BGR may receive a commissionAncestryDNA + Traits: Genetic Ethnicity + Traits Test, AncestryDNA Testing Kit with 35+ Traits,…List Price:$59.00Price:$48.00You Save:$11.00 (19%)Amazon Prime logoBuy NowAvailable from Amazon, BGR may receive a commission

More Black Friday 2021 deals

If you’re looking for all the best deals for Black Friday 2021, you’ll find them in our extensive coverage.

Go here to see this month’s best deals online!

Popular News

Источник: https://bgr.com/lifestyle/black-friday-dna-test-deals/

The 6 Best DNA Testing Kits of 2021

The information that you’re hoping to get out of a DNA test can dictate which test you should choose. We’ve rounded up the categories that are the most popular considerations below.

Ancestral tracking: There are tests that focus more heavily on ancestral and ethnic tracking, so if you're interested in your family history and how it impacts your health, look for a test that prioritizes ancestry.

Genetic testing and projections: DNA tests that focus on genetic testing can tell you more about your own genetics, as well as the diseases or health concerns that you might be predisposed to. This can be a good option for those who are child planning.

Allergy, nutrition, and environmental information: If you’re interested in finding the root cause of your allergies, it’s best to focus on DNA tests that prioritize the identification of potential allergens. While a lot of tests will do this to varying degrees, there are certain tests that cover more allergen possibilities. 

Источник: https://www.verywellhealth.com/best-dna-testing-kits-4171686

Illuminating the path to better health through genetic insights

Home  <div><h2>         Connecting with Your Biological Family through DNA Testing     </h2><div><p>Adoptees and others with unknown parentage can use DNA testing to find and connect with their biological families or to learn more about where their ancestors came from.DNA testing won’t always provide adoptees with a quick answer to finding their biological roots, but with some traditional genealogy research and DNA testing, many have found success! If you’re wondering how to find your birth parents through DNA, this article can help you get started.</p><h3>First Step—Taking a DNA Test</h3><p>If you wish to connect with your biological family or determine an unknown parent, consider taking an autosomal DNA test. An autosomal DNA test can be taken by males or females and may provide you with DNA matches within 5 to 6 generations on both your biological mother and father’s sides of the family. What’s a DNA match? A DNA match, sometimes referred to as a “cousin match,” is the result of your DNA data being compared to other people’s DNA data to identify matching segments of chromosomes that indicate a family relationship. How closely you are related depends on how much DNA you and another person share.</p><h3>Second Step—Consider Taking a Test from More Than One Company</h3><p>The major DNA testing companies help compare your DNA to the DNA of other people who have tested with the same company. For this reason, many genetic genealogists suggest adoptees upload their DNA file to other DNA websites, when possible, or test with multiple DNA companies. If you test with more than one company, your DNA will be matched to a bigger pool of potential relatives.</p><h3>Third Step—Review of DNA Matches</h3><p>Once your DNA has gone through the testing process, most companies will provide you with a DNA match list. Reviewing your DNA matches is the next step. Although you may not find a parent match in your match list, you will possibly have a half-sibling match, a close cousin match, or a more distant cousin match. Though a close match of second-cousin or closer is ideal, an adoptee may still be successful in connecting with his or her biological family while learning more about more distant DNA matches.Some of the DNA cousin matches may have additional information available for you to review online. Additional information may include family surnames, places of origin, or even a family pedigree with names, dates, and places.</p><h3>Fourth Step—Reaching Out</h3><p>The fourth step is to reach out to your DNA matches via the testing website’s message system. When using DNA testing to find your biological family, consider the following before reaching out to them.</p><ol><li>Your DNA match may not know how to help you determine your birth parents or immediate family.</li><li>Your birth and subsequent adoption may have been kept a secret from other members of the birth parents’ families.</li><li>Your birth family may not wish to make a connection.</li></ol><p>With these and many other things to consider, what are adoptees to do when they are ready to take the next step and reach out to their biological family? For inspiration, here is Jillian’s story of finding and reaching out to her birth father’s family after taking a DNA test.</p><h3>Jillian’s Story</h3><p>Jillian was adopted at birth, and her main purpose in DNA testing was to learn about her ancestors and where they came from and to be able to put together a family tree of some sort. But she thought that if she found her birth parents in the process “that would be great.”Jillian tested her DNA but found the process of analyzing her DNA matches overwhelming. She enlisted the help of a professional genealogist. DNA match lists from multiple testing companies were the key to finding her family. In no time, the genealogist located a few first-cousin matches and one of several responded.The first cousin did not have a family tree already, but using traditional genealogical research, they were able to build one. Then, with the limited adoption information Jillian knew, they determined that Jillian’s biological father was likely one of the uncles of her newfound cousin. Jillian’s first cousin tried to help other cousins test their DNA to determine who specifically was Jillian’s father, but not all of the cousins were willing to test.Although Jillian still does not know which of the uncles is her own birth father, she has been able to exchange family pictures and stories with her first cousin. Just recently, her cousin sent some of their grandmother’s Ukranian recipes for Jillian to try. “I will never taste the <i>pierogies</i> my grandmother made,” Jillian said, “but I can connect with her when I make them myself.”</p><h3>Hope and Support for Adoptees</h3><p>Many stories show happy reunions of biological families through DNA matching, but not all stories end in the same way. Many adoptees wishing for a similar story of their own may be disappointed with how their search for their biological family ends.</p><p>If you are looking for support after not having an ideal reunion, learning that your birth family doesn’t want to connect, or discovering an unknown parent, many community groups can help, including the following:</p><p>These groups can provide guidance, sympathy, and support. They can also advise on how to approach other family members sensitively, as your current and newfound family members may also be affected.Whether you meet your immediate birth family or not, DNA testing can offer you a way to learn more about your genetic history and where your family comes from. You can begin building your own unique part of your family tree for free on FamilySearch.org, before and after you take a DNA test.<i>Learn more about FamilySearch’s shared online tree and how it can help you learn about your family, collaborate with cousins and other family members, and do much more! </i></p><h3>More about DNA Testing</h3><p><i>Compare options for DNA testing and find answers to DNA questions on FamilySearch.org.</i></p><p> </p></div>Источник: https://www.familysearch.org/en/blog/how-to-find-birth-parents-through-dna</div> <h3>watch the thematic video</h3> I Took 5 DNA Tests and Compared Them - Which One Is Best?<iframe width='560' height='315' src='https://www.youtube.com/embed/gDk9w_JEgjY' frameborder='0' allowfullscreen></iframe> <div><h2>Illuminating the path to better health through genetic insights</h2><div><div><img src=average american savings 2020 used to collect a small DNA sample from the alleged father and from the child and the samples are then sent to Cellmark’s specialist DNA laboratory for testing and analysis.

In the laboratory our scientists test the DNA samples with 24 ‘markers’ (for more information see our FAQs) to analyse the at home dna test near me of the people being tested. This produces extremely accurate results which will either exclude the man from paternity with 100% certainty or will indicate a paternal relationship with a very high level of confidence - usually in excess of 99.99%. When carrying out a paternity test, including a sample from the mother (as well as from the child and alleged father) will always provide a more conclusive result.

Please note that DNA at Home’s paternity test compass scores online what is termed a ‘curiosity test’ - this means that the results will not be accepted in UK courts, nor by the Child Maintenance service. If you are disputing paternity and require a test for legal purposes then please visit our legal DNA paternity testing site - www.cellmark.co.uk

As with all of our DNA relationship testing services we offer a Next Day DNA service at no extra cost.  This means that if all the DNA samples for your test arrive at our UK laboratory before 10am, we aim to send the test result to you by the end at home dna test near me the next working day by email.

DNA relationship testing can be a life changing event and we would urge that before ordering a test you think carefully about the potential outcomes and at home dna test near me considered if testing will be in the best interests of the child(ren) involved.

If you have any questions please call our customer services team free on 0800 043 1987.

Источник: https://www.dna-at-home.co.uk/order/father-child-paternity-test/

Connecting with Your Biological Family through DNA Testing

Adoptees and others with unknown parentage can use DNA testing to find and connect with their biological families or to learn more about where their ancestors came from.DNA testing won’t always provide adoptees with a quick answer to finding their biological roots, but with some traditional genealogy research and DNA testing, many have found success! If you’re wondering how to find your birth parents through DNA, this article can help you get started.

First Step—Taking a DNA Test

If you wish to connect with your biological family or determine an unknown parent, consider taking an autosomal DNA test. An autosomal DNA test can be taken by males or females and may provide you with DNA matches within 5 to 6 generations on both your biological mother and father’s sides of the family. What’s a DNA match? A DNA match, sometimes referred to as a “cousin match,” is the result of your DNA data being compared to other people’s DNA data to identify matching segments of chromosomes that indicate a family relationship. How closely you are related depends on how much DNA you and another person share.

Second Step—Consider Taking a Test from More Than One Company

The major DNA testing companies help compare your DNA to the DNA of other people who have tested with the same company. For this reason, many genetic genealogists suggest adoptees upload their DNA file to other DNA websites, when possible, or test with multiple DNA companies. If you test with more than one company, your DNA will be matched to a bigger pool of potential relatives.

Third Step—Review of DNA Matches

Once your DNA has gone through the testing process, most companies will provide you with a DNA match list. Reviewing your DNA matches is the next step. Although you may not find a parent match in your match list, you will possibly have a half-sibling match, a close cousin match, or a more distant cousin match. Though a close match of second-cousin or closer is ideal, an adoptee may still be successful in connecting with his or her biological family while learning more about more distant DNA matches.Some of the DNA cousin matches may have additional information available for you to review online. Additional information may include family surnames, places of origin, or even a family pedigree with names, dates, and places.

Fourth Step—Reaching Out

The fourth step is to reach out to your DNA matches via the testing website’s message system. When using DNA testing to find your biological family, consider the following before reaching out to them.

  1. Your DNA match may not know how to help you determine your birth parents or immediate family.
  2. Your birth and subsequent adoption may have been kept a secret from other members of the birth parents’ families.
  3. Your birth family may not wish to make a connection.

With these and many other things to consider, what are adoptees to do when they are ready to take the next step and reach out to their biological family? For inspiration, here is Jillian’s story of finding and reaching out to her birth father’s family after taking a DNA test.

Jillian’s Story

Jillian was adopted at birth, and her main purpose in DNA testing was to learn about her ancestors and where they came from and to be able to put together a family tree of some sort. But she thought that if she found her birth parents in the process “that would be great.”Jillian tested her DNA but found the process of analyzing her DNA matches overwhelming. She enlisted the help of a professional genealogist. DNA match lists from multiple testing companies were the key to finding her family. In no time, the genealogist located a few first-cousin matches and one of several responded.The first cousin did not have a family tree already, but using traditional genealogical research, they were able to build one. Then, with the limited adoption information Jillian knew, they determined that Jillian’s biological father was likely one of the uncles of her newfound cousin. Jillian’s first cousin tried to help other cousins test their DNA to determine who specifically was Jillian’s father, but not all of the cousins were willing to test.Although Jillian still does not know which of the uncles is her own birth father, she has been able to exchange family pictures and stories with her first cousin. Just recently, her cousin sent some of their grandmother’s Ukranian recipes for Jillian to try. “I will never taste the pierogies my grandmother made,” Jillian said, “but I can connect with her when I make them myself.”

Hope and Support for Adoptees

Many stories show happy reunions of biological families through DNA matching, but not all stories end in the same way. Many adoptees wishing for a similar story of their own may be disappointed with how their search for their biological family ends.

If you are looking for support after not having an ideal reunion, learning that your birth family doesn’t want to connect, or discovering an unknown parent, many community groups can help, including the following:

These groups can provide guidance, sympathy, and support. They can also advise on how to approach other family members sensitively, as your current and newfound family members may also be affected.Whether you meet your immediate birth family or not, DNA testing can offer you a way to learn more about your genetic history and where your family comes from. You can begin building your own unique part of your family tree for free on FamilySearch.org, before and after you take a DNA test.Learn more about FamilySearch’s shared online tree and how it can help you learn about your family, collaborate with cousins and other family members, and do much more!

More about DNA Testing

Compare options for DNA testing and find answers to DNA questions on FamilySearch.org.

 

Источник: https://www.familysearch.org/en/blog/how-to-find-birth-parents-through-dna

What is multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1?

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary condition associated with tumors of the endocrine (hormone producing) glands. MEN1 was originally known as Wermer syndrome. The most common tumors seen in MEN1 involve the parathyroid gland, islet cells of the pancreas, and pituitary gland. Other endocrine tumors seen in MEN1 include adrenal cortical tumors, neuroendocrine tumors (previously called carcinoid tumors), and rare pheochromocytomas, as well as tumors in other parts of the digestive tract.

Non-endocrine tumors are also seen in MEN1. These tumors can include:

  • facial angiofibroma, which is a tumor of blood vessels and fibrous tissue

  • collagenoma, which is a flesh-colored tumor on the skin

  • lipoma, which is a fatty tumor

  • leiomyoma, which is a smooth muscle tumor

  • meningioma, which is a tumor from nervous system tissue; uncommon

  • ependymoma, which is a tumor from nervous system tissue; uncommon

The majority of at home dna test near me in people with MEN1 are benign (noncancerous). However, approximately 1 out of 3 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and mediastinal neuroendocrine tumors are cancerous, meaning the tumor can spread to other parts of the body. These tumors can also cause problems by producing high amounts of hormones. There is a wide variety of symptoms that can occur due to this increased hormone production by this type of tumor. These include increased production of:

  • Prolactin, which causes abnormal milk production by the breast, lack of menstruation in women, and lowered testosterone production in men

  • growth hormone, which causes excessive growth of the jaw and other soft tissues

  • adrenocorticotropic hormone, which causes excessive cortisol production by the adrenal glands

  • gastrin, which causes stomach ulcers

  • glucagon, which causes diabetes mellitus and skin rash

  • vasoactive intestinal peptide, produced by a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, causing intense watery diarrhea

  • parathyroid hormone, produced by parathyroid tumors, causing high blood calcium (hypercalcemia) and kidney stones

What causes MEN1?

MEN1 is a genetic condition. This means that the cancer risk and other features of MEN1 can be passed from generation to generation in a family. The gene associated with MEN1 is also called MEN1. A mutation (alteration) in the MEN1 gene gives a person an increased risk of developing endocrine tumors and other symptoms of MEN1. More than 90% of individuals who inherit the MEN1 mutation will develop 1 or more symptoms of MEN1. A small percentage of people without MEN1 genetic alterations have been found to have germline mutations (alterations in the body’s egg or sperm cells that become incorporated into the DNA of every cell through inheritance) in a class of proteins called cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) that regulate cell growth and division. Research is ongoing to learn more about MEN1.

How is MEN1 inherited?

Normally, every cell has 2 copies of each gene: 1 inherited from the mother and 1 from the father. MEN1 follows an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, in which a mutation happens in only 1 copy of the gene. This means that a parent with a gene mutation may pass along a copy of their normal gene or a copy of the gene with the mutation. Therefore, any child from a parent with a genetic mutation has a 50% chance of inheriting that mutation. However, if the parents test negative for the mutation, the risk to the siblings significantly decreases but their risk may still be higher than an average risk.

Options exist for people interested in having a child when a prospective parent carries a gene mutation that increases the risk for this hereditary cancer syndrome. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic.

How common is MEN1?

It is estimated that about 1 in 30,000 people has MEN1. About 10% of people with MEN1 do not have a family history of the condition; they have a de novo (new) mutation in the MEN1 gene.

How is MEN1 diagnosed?

MEN1 is suspected when a person has at least 2 of the most common tumors listed below:

  • Parathyroid tumor

  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

  • Pituitary gland tumor

If a person has a family history of MEN1, he or she is suspected of also having MEN1 if diagnosed with a parathyroid, pancreatic, or pituitary tumor. Genetic testing for mutations in the MEN1 gene is available for people suspected to have MEN1. A mutation in the MEN1 gene is found in about at home dna test near me to 90% of families diagnosed with MEN1. Approximately 65% of people with 2 or more tumors associated with MEN1, but no family history, will have a mutation in the MEN1 gene. 

What are the estimated cancer risks associated with MEN1?

Approximately 1 out freedom mortgage payment schedule 3 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are cancerous. If the cancer has spread beyond where it started, the most common site of spread is the liver. A small percentage of mediastinal neuroendocrine tumors are cancerous and spread to local (nearby) lymph nodes or to the liver, lung, or other locations.

What are the screening options for MEN1?

Current suggested screening for people who are known or suspected to have MEN1 includes:

Genetic testing

  • Genetic testing is available. It should be considered for children or young adults who are members of a family diagnosed with MEN1 and an identified mutation of the MEN1 gene to determine which children and young adults should have the screening studies described below. In a family with an identified mutation of the MEN1 gene, children with a genetic test showing no mutation (expected to be 50% of children born to an individual affected with MEN1) may not need the screening tests described below. 

Diagnostic studies

  • Regular blood tests every 1 to 3 years for prolactin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), fasting glucose, insulin, and proinsulin, beginning at age 5 to 10 years.

  • A yearly ionized or albumin-corrected calcium level test, beginning at age 8

  • Regular blood tests for fasting gastrin and fasting and meal stimulated pancreatic polypeptide (PP), fasting VIP, and glucagon, beginning at age 20.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain, every 3 to 5 years, beginning between ages 5 to 10, or at any time the results of the tests for serum prolactin or insulin-like growth factor is abnormal.

  • MRI or computed tomography(CT)scan of the chest and abdomen, every 2 to 4 years, beginning at age 20 or when the serum gastrin, PP, or VIP is noted to be abnormal.

Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about MEN1. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests.

What are the treatment options for the endocrine tumors?

Most of these tumors are treated with surgery or by taking a medicine that suppresses growth or function of the tumor. Parathyroid tumors, which are almost always benign, should be surgically removed when the albumin-corrected serum calcium level is greater than 12 mg/dl, there is significant bone loss, or kidney damage or stones. There are challenging treatment issues related to removing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. In addition to its role in normal digestion, the pancreas regulates the level of blood glucose through insulin production. Removal of the pancreas will cause diabetes mellitus, a condition that can lead to significant health problems and it will be necessary to take pancreatic enzyme supplements to promote digestion. Doctors must balance the benefits of pancreatic removal in a person with MEN1, such as the prevention of development of cancer spread, against the risks of diabetes mellitus. Patients with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor that has spread to the liver may be treated with a somatostatin analogue or a drug that regulates signaling in the pancreatic islet cell, everolimus.  Other neuroendocrine tumors are typically removed by surgery and other treatments may be recommended.

Pituitary bank of america home equity loan interest rate producing the hormone prolactin are most commonly managed with dopamine agonists, which are drugs that imitate the action of dopamine, a naturally occurring substance produced in the brain. Tumors that produce growth hormone or adrenocorticoptropin hormone or non-functioning tumors are most commonly treated with surgery. There are 2 hormonal therapies, a somatostatin analogue and a growth hormone antagonist, that have been successfully used to treat too much growth hormone in patients who are not cured by surgery. Learn more about pituitary tumor treatment.

Learn more about what to expect when having common tests, procedures, and scans.

Questions to ask the health care team

If you are concerned about your risk of an endocrine tumor, talk with your health care team. It can be helpful to bring someone along to your appointments to take notes. Consider asking your health care team the following questions:

  • What is my risk of developing a neuroendocrine tumor?

  • What can I do to reduce my risk of other types of tumors?

  • What are my options for screening?

If you are concerned about your family history and think you or other family members may have MEN1, consider asking the following questions:

  • Does my family history increase my risk of developing cancer?

  • Does it suggest the need for a cancer risk assessment?

  • Will you refer me to a genetic counselor or other genetics specialist?

  • Should I consider genetic testing?

Related Resources

The Genetics of Cancer

Genetic Testing

What to Expect When You Meet With a Genetic Counselor

Collecting Your Family Cancer History

Sharing Genetic Test Results with Your Family

Family Genetic Testing Q&A

More Information 

American Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Support
http://amensupport.org/

Association for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Disorders (AMEND)
www.amend.org.uk

National Cancer Institute
www.cancer.gov

To find a genetic counselor in your area, ask your doctor or visit this website:       

National Society of Genetic Counselors  
www.nsgc.org

Источник: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1

More Indians are taking home DNA tests but do they understand what their genes are telling them?

A year ago, Soheila Jalali ordered a home DNA test to establish her genetic predisposition to more than 100 medical conditions, including cancers of different organs, diabetes, heart attack and stroke. About three weeks after couriering her mouth swab sample to a genetic testing laboratory in Hyderabad, the 25-year-old biotechnologist received a “long report” in her inbox.

This was one email Jalali was terrified to open.

The report had red flags against the names of several diseases. “The red flags meant that I had a higher risk of developing those conditions in my lifetime,” said Jalali. One of the conditions was eye cancer. “I can’t do anything now to prevent it but I can take regular eye check-ups to pick the cancer early,” she said.

The risks flagged off in Jalali’s report are what are called at home dna test near me risks”. Based on her genetic make up Jalali has a higher chance of developing eye cancer but this is in no way a prediction that she will actually get eye cancer.

Doctors say that apart from taking preventive health check ups and making healthy lifestyle choices, there is very little a person can do to reduce risks of developing a condition to which they are genetically predisposed.

Jalali had decided to assess her rsk of developing several medical conditions even though she did not know of any family member with a genetically-linked medical condition that she was afraid to inherit. “I can prepare myself,” she said but admitted that the information made her panic at several times.

Like Jalali, many people have become curious about their medical predispositions because of increased access to personal genomics. Doctors feel that while some clients may be able to process the information well, others might panic without undrstanding what risk of “a potential fatal disease” means.

The Angeline Jolie effect

Predictive genetic testing or pre-symptomatic genetic testing became extremely popular after Hollywood actor Angelina Jolie underwent a double mastectomy following a genetic test which showed that she had mutation in a gene known as BRCA1 that increased her risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Jolie’s mother had died of cancer and Jolie underwent the procedure to reduce her chances of developing the condition.

Jolie’s decision stirred an ethical debate on the need for screening to look for genetic mutations which are associated with an increased risk of developing both chronic and life threatening medical conditions.

Doctors could recommend to a patient like Jolie, who has a strong history of cancer running in the family to take the test, but they are divided if people like Jalali with no history of genetically linked diseases need it. Many doctors feel that not everything a genetic test reveals about a person’s risk of developing a disease is “useful information.”

A genetic test is prognostic and not diagnostic in nature, said doctors. A diagnostic test will tell you whether the person taking the test has the disease that the doctor suspects on the basis of the symptoms the patient complains of. For instance, a diagnostic test will tell if the patient has high blood glucose level but a genetic test will look for the mutation in the gene responsible for increasing the person’s risk of at home dna test near me diabetes.

Consumer direct testing companies mushrooming in India offer several predictive genetic tests that clients, not patients, can buy online. The company sends a testing kit to the client who couriers the DNA samples back. The client may prick his finger and send a dry blood sample or a cheek swab to the laboratory. “We extract the DNA from the sample and amplify it to look for mutations in the gene and biological markers to check the person’s risk of developing certain diseases,” said Anu Acharya, chief executive officer of Mapmygenome, a genetic testing laboratory.

It is well established that a mutation in BRCA1 gene increases risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but as medical genetics is evolving with doctors still identifying new genes and mutations which can be associated with the increase risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer and other diseases.

“You should know what you are looking for,” said Dr Jaya Vyas, consultant for genetic and molecular biology at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital in Mumbai. “You can’t really know all the genes under the sun.”

Vyas and her team do not offer predictive testing at the moment. “It (predictive testing) is not very clear at this stage,” she said.

Lack of Indian data

Another problem with predicting disease risk using genetic information in India is the lack of data. Acharya admitted that there is not enough data to predict several diseases. “Right now we have good Indian data for predicting diabetes and heart conditions,” she said.

Apart from looking for specific mutation in genes, doctors also look for structural changes in the gene, which Acharya explained are biological markers. “Indians with diabetes have some specific biological markers. So when we test a client who shows the presence of the same biological marker, we can conclude that he is at the risk of having diabetes at a later stage.”

In the absence of such data on genetic mutations and biological markers specific to the Indian population, laboratories rely on data generated by gene tests run among Caucasian population for instance, which many not be relevant or reliable. There are normal variations across ethnicity which will have to be taken into account, said Dr Girisha KM, professor and head of department of medical genetics at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University.

The biggest concern for Joshua M Sharfstein, associate dean of public health practice and training at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the US, is whether the data is accurate. “There are many unvalidated tests being offered to consumers,” he told Scroll.in in an email. “Tests that are invalid do not provide useful information.”

For Jalali that hardly matters. “Just because some doctors don’t understand how to interpret the data my test reveals, I cannot stop myself from getting the test,” she said. Jalali thinks that with each passing year, the science will progress in India and her report will help her to get the right treatment. “It might help my doctor to diagnose my condition faster because he knows that I am genetically prone to it.”

Hope versus hype

A genetic test, like the ones Mapmygenome offers, costs between Rs 4,000 for a single gene test and Rs 1.2 lakh for a more comprehensive genetic analysis comprising more than 100 gigabytes of genetic data. “There is too much information available,” warned Vyas. “You have to be cautious and sensitive and ready to accept it. I personally feel it is dangerous.”

However, the number of people taking these tests is only rising. “We are doing 15 times more tests that what we performed in 2014 when we started,” said Samarth Jain, chief executive officer of Positive Bioscience, a genetic testing laboratory in Mumbai.

Some families are ordering tests for minor children too. Chennai resident Vedant Raj Lohia, 19, and nine members from his family took the predictive genetic test. Lohia was worried about male pattern baldness, a pattern of receding hairline and a thinning crown that is caused by hormonal effects and might be genetically triggered.

“I know it is petty but I wanted to know,” said Lohia. “Fortunately, I don’t have it.” Even if Lohia had the possibility of developing baldness, there is very little he could do to prevent it.

“I just wanted to know. It is a relief,” he asserted.

Pranav Aman, a geneticist from New Castle University in the United Kingdom who runs a genetic testing laboratory called GeneBox, recalled 19 members of a family in Bangalore who took the test. “The youngest was a three-year-old,” he said. Apart from predicting the risk of diseases, Aman’s laboratory offers information “on the kind of exercise, sport a person can play depending on the genes they have.” Reports generated by Aman’s laboratory tells clients the kind of workout which will help them to “lose wight”.

“Some people can’t lose weight despite all the exercising because their genes are now allowing them,” he said. “People need to eat and exercise according to their genes.”

Apart from disease risk prediction, some DNA home tests provide information on the body’s responses to commonly used drugs. Vyas’s team runs test genetic test for cancer patients to find out what drug will work best for them depending on their genetic makeup. “This is helping cancer patients,” said Vyas. “If we know that the patient’s genes won’t allow the drug to work, we can put them on an alternate drug instead of wasting precious time.”

The tests Vyas’ lab runs are meant only for patients and are not sold to people who have not been been diagnised with disease. “They are only performed if the treating doctor prescribes it,” said Vyas.

But even Jalali’s home DNA test told her about ashley genesis credit card body’s response to 11 commonly used drugs to manage symptoms arising out of diabetes and cardiac conditions.

Understanding the data

As customers buy the tests online, they also receive the test result over email as Jalali did. There is an option where they can “discuss their report with a genetic counselor from the laboratory”. These reports could have life-altering consequences, said Vyas who believes that anyone taking a test should be given both pre and post-test counseling.

A study published in international medical journal PLOS said that doctors “did not observe short-term changes in behavior associated with the communication of an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes.”

“You may not be able to cope with what the test tells you,” said Girisha, who says personal genomics testing is often miss-selling of modern scientific advances.

Like Girisha, many doctors feel genetic tests should be performed only if a doctor prescribes them and for “medically actionable diseases”, which means the person can do something actively to reduce his risk of developing them. If a person finds out that he has an “elevated risk” of developing cardiovascular disease, he can adopt to healthy eating and exercising to reduce the risk. However, when Girisha counsels patients who look at genetic testing as “scientific astrology” he encourages them to have a healthy lifestyle irrespective of their gene tests. “You don’t need to get a gene test to start exercising,” he said.

Risk of genetic discrimination


Acknowledging the possibility of discrimination, the United States passed the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in 2008 to protect Americans against any discrimination based on their genetic information when it comes to health insurance and employment.

Genetic testing laboratories in India are not governed by any specific legislation. They require the same set of permissions that a diagnostic laboratory performing blood glucose tests does.

Doctors in India are worried about the “social implications” for those who have high risk of developing life-threatening conditions. A doctor working as a general practitioner in Mumbai who did not want to be identified said that there was always the chance of such genetic tests being used against a person by his employer and insurer. “The business is too unregulated at the moment,” he said.

The Indian Council of Medical Research, apex body at home dna test near me regulating clinical research in India has not developed any guidelines to regulate genetic testing laboratories. “Personal genomics is at a very underdeveloped stage and companies are exploiting people by offering it,” said Dr Soumya Swaminathan, director general of Indian Council of Medical Research.

Barring certain conditions, Swaminathan said that there is no “real prediction these genetic tests can do”. She said that most diseases are multifactorial and multi-genetic in nature. “There are several genes responsible for developing Schizophrenia (a mental disorder),” she said.

Currently very few institutes in India have a courses on medical genetics. Most geneticists operating in India have foreign degrees. The Indian government has no system to recognise these foreign degrees.

It is not just regulation but the quality of results and interpretation that has also got doctors worried. As Girisha argues in favor of a qualified person to be performing and interpreting the test results in well informed individuals”.He explained with an analogy, “A four wheel vehicle can be a car or a tempo and that is why you need a qualified person to be performing and interpreting the test results”.

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Источник: https://scroll.in/pulse/827169/more-indians-are-taking-home-dna-tests-but-do-they-understand-what-their-genes-are-telling-them
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