www t online de sport

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The National Sports Center Foundation, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, seeks donations in order to remain open and continue to run programs and events that generate over $89 million in annual visitor impact.

Youth sports, a $20 billion industry, is extremely impacted by the pause in sports actions due to COVID-19. Given the seasonal nature of many sports, simply rescheduling practices and games can prove quite challenging. If the National Sports Center does not get a bailout from the state government, the City of Blaine and State of Minnesota will lose out on millions of dollars of economic impact generated by thousands of visitors who would be traveling to the campus.

We must carry in our hearts the fact that the National Sports Center is special. 30 years of intangible memories on the field, ice, course and track were made in a natural sports environment.The National Sports Center understands the tangible and intangible benefits of providing the community with a multisport facility complex that has been a vital part of Minnesota’s sports history through the years.

You can make a difference. Text NSCPLAY to 91999 5th third bank customer service phone number make a donation or visit nscplay.nscsports.org. If you don't have the means to donate, share this post and if you live in Minnesota, send it to your local officials.

 

Источник: https://www.nscsports.org/

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geht nicht.Nur bei MagentaTV.

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TV

Schauen Sie MagentaTV einfach über die MagentaTV Box, den Media Receiver oder mit einem Streaming-Adapter (MagentaTV Stick, Fire TV Stick, Google Chromecast) und der MagentaTV App. Oder direkt auf Ihrem smarten Fernseher (Samsung Smart TV, Apple TV, Android TV) ohne zusätzliche Hardware.

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Mit der MagentaTV App sind Sie super flexibel. Egal ob in der Bahn, im Flugzeug oder im Café – Entertainment ist, wo Sie sind.

Источник: https://www.telekom.de/sport/fussball-magenta-tv

Sidney Sam hört auf: Ex-Nationalspieler beendet seine Fußball-Karriere

Das war's. Der ehemalige Bundesligastar Sidney Sam hat via Instagram sein Karriereende bekannt gegeben. Außerdem äußerte sich Sam dazu, was er in Zukunft machen will.

Der frühere Nationalspieler Sidney Sam hat seine Karriere als aktiver Fußballer beendet. Per Instagram berichtete der 33-Jährige am Montag von seiner Teilnahme an einer Sportmanagement-Weiterbildung der Universität St. Gallen und dem dabei erzielten erfolgreichen Abschluss.

"Nun beginnt für mich ein neuer Lebensabschnitt. Ich kann sagen, dass ich während meiner Fußballkarriere viele großartige Menschen kennenlernen durfte. Nun ist der Zeitpunkt gekommen, meine aktive Karriere, die natürlich Höhen und Tiefen hatte, zu beenden", erklärte Sam. Er freue sich jetzt auf die "Karriere nach der Karriere".

Offensivspieler Sam hatte insgesamt 122 Bundesligapartien für den Hamburger SV, Bayer Leverkusen, Schalke 04 und Darmstadt 98 absolviert und war bis 2019 beim damaligen Zweitligisten VfL Bochum aktiv. Zudem kam er 2013 in fünf Länderspielen für die deutsche A-Nationalmannschaft zum Einsatz, darunter auch zwei Qualifikationsspiele für die WM 2014, bei der das DFB-Team den Titel holte.

Mehr zum Thema

  • Themen:
  • Sport,
  • Fussball,
  • Bundesliga,
  • Weltmeisterschaft,
  • SV Darmstadt 98,
  • VfL Bochum,
  • Schalke 04,
  • Sidney Sam,
  • Bayer Leverkusen,
  • Hamburger SV
Источник: https://www.t-online.de/sport/fussball/bundesliga/id_90873722/sidney-sam-hoert-auf-ex-nationalspieler-beendet-seine-fussball-karriere.html

Sport und Gesellschaft is covered by the following services:

  • Baidu Scholar
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  • CNPIEC - cnpLINKer
  • Dimensions
  • EBSCO (relevant databases)
  • EBSCO Discovery Service
  • Google Scholar
  • IBR (International Bibliography of Reviews of Scholarly Literature in the Humanities and Social Sciences)
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Источник: https://www.degruyter.com/journal/key/sug/html?lang=en

Champions League: Timo Werner trifft bei Chelsea-Sieg – PSG-Sorge um Neymar

In den zwei frühen Spielen der Champions League am Mittwoch waren gleich zwei Hochkaräter im Einsatz. Paris in der Türkei und Chelsea in Russland. Beide Teams konnten gewinnen, doch für PSG gab es auch eine schlechte Nachricht.

Der FC Chelsea hat sein Spiel beim FK Krasnodar mit 4:0 gewonnen. Die "Blues" um Nationalstürmer Timo Werner drehten vor allem in der zweiten Hälfte auf, erzielten drei der vier Tore in der Schlussviertelstunde. Zu den Torschützen zählte auch Werner, der per Elfmeter das 2:0 erzielte (76.).

Die anderen Treffer erzielten Callum Hudson-Odoi (37.), Hakim Ziyech (79.) und der Ex-Dortmunder Christian Suntrust online cash manager fees (90.). In der 13. Minute hatte noch Mittelfeldmann Jorginho einen Elfmeter an den Pfosten geschossen, den zuvor Timo Werner herausgeholt hatte. Damit hat Chelsea nach zwei Spielen vier Punkte auf dem Konto. Als nächster Gegner wartet Stade Rennes auf das Team von Trainer Frank Lampard.

Neymar verletzt ausgewechselt

In der anderen Partie feierte Paris Saint-Germain nach der Auftaktniederlage gegen Manchester United den ersten Sieg. Bei Basaksehir gewann das Team von Trainer Thomas Tuchel mit 2:0. Neuzugang Moise Kean war mit seinen beiden Toren der Matchwinner für Paris. Der Italiener traf in der 64. und in der 79. Minute und sorgte somit für den Endstand.

Torschütze: Paris' Moise Kean jubelt gegen Basaksehir. (Quelle: Reuters)Torschütze: Paris' Moise Kean jubelt gegen Basaksehir. (Quelle: Reuters)

Eine schlechte Nachricht gab es aber auch noch für PSG. Nach 26 Minuten musste Tuchel Superstar Neymar auswechseln. Der Stürmer hatte sich am Oberschenkel verletzt, wurde erst behandelt, versuchte es dann sogar noch einmal, ehe er dann schlussendlich vom Platz musste.

Viel Zeit zur Genesung bleibt Neymar nicht, wenn er das nächste Spiel nicht verpassen will. Am Samstag trifft PSG in der französischen Liga auf Nantes, ehe es am kommenden Mittwoch nach Leipzig geht.

Brügge überrascht gegen Lazio

Dortmund-Bezwinger Lazio Rom kam nach einem Corona-Ausbruch mit stark dezimiertem Kader zu einem 1:1 (1:1) beim belgischen Meister FC Brügge. Correa hatte die Italiener früh in Führung gebracht (14.), Hans Vanaken per Elfmeter kurz vor der Halbzeit ausgeglichen (42.). Europa-League-Sieger FC Sevilla setzte sich dank eines Treffers von Luuk de Jong (58.) mit 1:0 (0:0) gegen Stade Rennes durch. Dynamo Kiew verspielte beim 2:2 (2:0) bei Ferencvaros Budapest einen 2:0-Vorsprung.

Im Duell der Giganten hatte Weltfußballer Lionel Messi mit dem FC Barcelona beim italienischen Rekordmeister Juventus Turin mit 2:0 (1:0) die Nase vorn. Sein ewiger Konkurrent Cristiano Ronaldo war zwei Wochen nach einem positiven Coronatest nur Zuschauer und stinksauer. "Bullshit" seien die Tests, schrieb der Portugiese, der nach Angaben des Senders TV1 bereits 18-mal positiv getestet wurde. Der Ex-Dortmunder Dembélé (14.) und Messi (90., Elfmeter) trafen für die Katalanen.

Mehr zum Thema

  • Themen:
  • Sport,
  • Fußball,
  • Champions League,
  • Thomas Tuchel,
  • Paris Saint-Germain,
  • Neymar,
  • FC Chelsea,
  • Timo Werner,
  • Callum Hudson-Odoi,
  • Manchester United,
  • Frank Lampard
Источник: https://www.t-online.de/sport/fussball/champions-league/id_88836162/champions-league-timo-werner-trifft-bei-chelsea-sieg-psg-sorge-um-neymar.html

Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports

Team sports can boost kids' self-esteem, coordination, and general fitness, and help them learn how to work with other kids and adults.

But some kids aren't natural athletes, and they may tell parents — directly or indirectly — that they just don't like sports. What then?

Why Some Kids Don't Like Teams

Not every child has to join a team, and with enough other activities, kids can be fit without them. But try to find out why your child isn't interested. You might be able to help address deeper concerns or steer your child toward something else.

Tell your child that you'd like to work on a solution together. This might mean making changes and sticking with the team sport or finding a new activity to try.

Here are some reasons why sports might be a turnoff for kids:

Still Developing Basic Skills

Though many sports programs are available for preschoolers, it's not until about age 6 or 7 that most kids have the physical skills, the attention span, and the ability to grasp the rules needed to play organized sports.

Kids who haven't had much practice in a specific sport might need time to reliably perform necessary skills such as kicking a soccer ball on the run or hitting a baseball thrown from the pitcher's mound. Trying and failing, especially in a game situation, might frustrate them or make them nervous.

What you can do: Practice with your child at home. Whether it's shooting baskets, playing catch, or going for a jog together, you'll give your child an opportunity to build skills and fitness in a safe environment. Your child can try — and, possibly, fail — new things without the self-consciousness of being around peers. And you're also getting a good dose of quality together time.

Coach or Www t online de sport Is Too Competitive

A kid who's already a reluctant athlete might feel extra-nervous when the coach barks out orders or the league focuses heavily on winning.

What you can do: Investigate sports programs before signing your child up for one. Talk with coaches and other parents about the philosophy. Some athletic associations, like the YMCA, have noncompetitive leagues. In some programs, they don't even keep score.

As kids get older, they can handle more competitive aspects such as keeping score and keeping track of wins and losses for the season. Some kids may be motivated by competitive play, but most aren't ready for the increased pressure until they're 11 or 12 years old. Remember that even in more competitive leagues, the atmosphere should remain positive and supportive for all the participants.

Page 2

Stage Fright

Kids who aren't natural athletes or are a little shy might be uncomfortable with the pressure of being on a team. More self-conscious kids also might worry about letting their parents, coaches, or teammates down. This is especially true if a child is still working on basic skills and if the league is very competitive.

What you can do: Keep your expectations realistic — most kids don't become Olympic medalists or get sports scholarships. Let your child know the goal is to be fit and have fun. If the coach or league doesn't agree, it's probably time to look for something new.

Still Shopping for a Sport

Some kids haven't found the right sport. Maybe a child who doesn't have the hand-eye coordination for baseball has the drive and the build to be a swimmer, a runner, or a cyclist. The idea of an individual sport also can be more appealing to some kids who like to go it alone.

What you can do: Be open to your child's interests in other sports or activities. That can be tough if, for instance, you just loved basketball and wanted to continue the legacy. But by exploring other options, you give your child a chance to get invested in something he or she truly enjoys.

Other Barriers

Different kids mature at different rates, so expect a wide range of heights, weights, and athletic abilities among kids of the same age group. A child who's much bigger or smaller than other kids of the same age — or less coordinated or not as strong — may feel self-conscious and uncomfortable competing with them.

Kids also might be afraid of getting injured or worried that they can't keep up. Kids who are overweight might be reluctant to participate in a sport, for example, while a child with asthma might feel more comfortable with sports that require short outputs of energy, like baseball, football, gymnastics, golf, and shorter track and field events.

What you can do: Give some honest thought to your child's strengths, abilities, and temperament, and find an activity that might be a good match. Some kids are afraid of the ball, so they don't like softball or volleyball but may enjoy an activity like running. If your child is overweight, he or she might lack the endurance to run, but might enjoy a sport like swimming. A child who's too small for the basketball team may enjoy gymnastics or wrestling.

Remember that some kids will prefer sports that focus on individual performance rather than teamwork. The goal is to prevent your child from feeling frustrated, wanting to quit, and being turned off from sports and physical activity altogether.

Try to address your child's concerns. By being understanding and providing a supportive environment, you'll help foster success in whatever activity your child chooses.

Page 3

Fitness Outside of Team Sports

Even kids who once said they hated sports might learn to like team sports as their skills improve or they find the right sport or a league. But even if team sports never thrill your child, there's plenty a kid can do to get the recommended 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day.

Free play can be very important for kids who don't play a team sport. What's free play? It's the activity kids get when they're left to their own devices, like shooting hoops, riding bikes, playing whiffleball, playing tag, jumping rope, or dancing.

Kids might also enjoy individual sports or other organized activities that can boost fitness, such as:

  • swimming
  • horseback riding
  • dance classes
  • inline skating
  • cycling
  • cheerleading
  • skateboarding
  • hiking
  • golf
  • tennis
  • fencing
  • gymnastics
  • martial arts
  • yoga and other fitness classes
  • Ultimate Frisbee
  • running

Supporting Your Kid's Choices

Even if the going's tough, work with your child to find something active that he or she likes. Try to remain open-minded. Maybe your child is interested in an activity that is not offered at school. If your daughter wants to try flag football or ice hockey, for example, help her find a local league or talk to school officials about starting up a new team.

You'll need to be patient if your child has difficulty choosing and sticking to an activity. It often takes several tries before kids find one that feels like the right fit. But when something clicks, you'll be glad you invested the time and effort. For your child, it's one big step toward developing active habits that can last a lifetime.

Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/hate-sports.html

Sport

Forms of competitive activity, usually physical

For other uses, see Sport (disambiguation).

Sport pertains to any form of competitivephysical activity or game[1] that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectators.[2] Sports can, through casual or organized participation, improve one's physical health. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

Sport is generally recognised as system of activities based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition.[3] Other organisations, such as the Council of Europe, preclude activities without a physical element from classification as sports.[2] However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers), Go and xiangqi,[4][5] and limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports.[1]

Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.

Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is also a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. Sport betting is in some cases severely regulated, and in some cases is central to the sport.

According to A.T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013.[6] The world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is the most popular spectator sport.[7]

Meaning and usage

Etymology

The word "sport" comes from the Old Frenchdesport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining".[8]

Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise.[9] Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.[10]

Nomenclature

The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g. "children taking part in sport"), with "sports" used to describe multiple activities (e.g. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England"). American English uses "sports" for both terms.

Definition

See also: Game § Definitions

The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations (including association football, athletics, cycling, tennis, equestrian sports, and more), and is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.

SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should:[1]

  • have an element of competition
  • be in no way harmful to any living creature
  • not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such as arena football)
  • not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport.

They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics), primarily mind (such as chess or Go), predominantly motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating), primarily co-ordination (such as billiard sports), or primarily animal-supported (such as equestrian sport).[1]

The inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports.[11] Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports.

There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games, also called esports (from "electronic sports"), especially due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."[12]

Competition

100m race record holder Usain Bolt(in yellow, right) and other runners, Moscow, 2013.

There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sports involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or SportAccord.[1]

Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun.

In order to widen participation, and www t online de sport the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.[13][14]

In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, (e.g. gender, weight and age). The measurement of the result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. In gymnastics or diving the result is decided by a panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades of judging between boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time.

History

Main article: History of sport

Artifacts and structures suggest sport in China as early as 2000 BC.[15] Gymnastics appears to have been popular in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt.[16] Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zoorkhaneh had a close connection to warfare skills.[17] Among other sports that originated in ancient Persia are polo and jousting.

A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.[18]

Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time, letting people attend and follow spectator sports and participate in athletic activities. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity, as sports fans followed the exploits of professional athletes – all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with amateur participation in sports. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been increasing debate about whether transgender sports persons should be able to participate in sport events that conform with their post-transition gender identity.[19]

Fair play

Sportsmanship

Main article: Sportsmanship

See also: Gamesmanship and Winning isn't everything; it's the only thing

Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.[20][21][22]

Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by www t online de sport journalist Grantland Rice, that it's "not that you won or lost but how you played the game", and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing. is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment.

Cheating

See also: Match fixing and cheating

Key principles of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break these rules in order to gain advantage.

Participants may cheat in order to unfairly increase their chance of winning, or in order to achieve other advantages such as financial gains. The widespread existence of gambling on the results of sports fixtures creates a motivation for match fixing, where a participant or participants deliberately work to ensure a given outcome rather than simply playing to win.

Doping and drugs

Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport

The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their performance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means.

All sports recognised by the IOC or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme, looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or glenview state bank review being placed on participants who test positive for banned substances.

Violence

Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash www t online de sport behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism by fans in particular is a problem at some national and international sporting contests.

Participation

Gender participation

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

See also: Women's sports, Women's professional sports, and Women's sports in the United States

Female participation in sports continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness. Despite increases in female participation during the last three decades, a gap persists in the enrolment figures between male and female players in sports-related teams. Female players account for 39% of the total participation in US interscholastic athletics.

Youth participation

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

See also: College sport

Youth sport presents children with opportunities for fun, socialisation, what is a trust company peer relationships, physical fitness, and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourage youth sport as a means to increase educational participation and to fight the illegal drug trade. According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital, the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion. These risks come from running, basketball, association football, volleyball, gridiron, gymnastics, and ice hockey.[23] Youth sport www t online de sport the US is a $15 billion industry including equipment up to private coaching.[24]

Disabled participation

See also: Disabled sports

Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports.

Spectator involvement

Spectators at the 1906 unofficial Olympic Games

Main article: Spectator sport

The competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport being played. This has www t online de sport to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport.

Both amateur and professional sports attract spectators, both in person at the sport venue, and through broadcast media including radio, television and internet broadcast. Both attendance in person and viewing remotely can incur a sometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, or pay-per-view television broadcast.

It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show certain fixtures. The football World Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions; the 2006final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million and the 2011 Cricket World Cup Inmate calling tarrant county attracted an estimated audience of 135 million in India alone.[25]

In the United States, the championship game of the NFL, the Super Bowl, has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year.[26][27] Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America;[28][29] the viewership being so great that in 2015, advertising space was reported as being sold at $4.5m for a 30-second slot.[26]

Amateur and professional

Women's volleyball team of a U.S. university.

See also: professional sport what is a trust company amateur sport

Sport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on whether participants are incentivised for average american savings 2020 (usually through payment of a wage or salary). Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport".[2][30]

The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sport culture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which can run into millions of dollars.[31]

Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby.[32] From 1971, Olympic athletes were allowed to receive www t online de sport and sponsorship,[33] and from 1986, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics,[33][34] with the exceptions of boxing,[35][36] and wrestling.[37][38]

Technology

Technology plays an important part in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports (such as motorsport), it is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision best savings account rates in ct.

Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology.[39] In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules that are set to control the impact of technical advantage between participants. For example, in 2010, full-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINA, as they were enhancing swimmers' performances.[40][41]

The increase in technology has also allowed many decisions in sports matches to be taken, or reviewed, off-field, with another official using instant replays to make decisions. In some sports, players can now challenge decisions made by officials. In Association football, goal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not.[42] The technology is not compulsory,[43] but was used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil,[44] and the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada,[45] as well as in the Premier League from 2013–14,[46] and the Bundesliga from 2015–16.[47] In the NFL, a referee can ask for a review from the replay booth, or a head coach can issue a challenge to review the play using replays. The final decision rests with the referee.[48] A video referee (commonly known as a Television Match Official or TMO) can also use replays to help decision-making in rugby (both league and union).[49][50] In international cricket, an umpire can ask the Third umpire for a decision, and the third umpire makes the final decision.[51][52] Since 2008, a decision review system for players to review decisions has been introduced and used in ICC-run tournaments, and optionally in other matches.[51][53] Depending on the host broadcaster, a number of different technologies are used during an umpire or player review, including instant replays, Hawk-Eye, Hot Spot and Real Time Snickometer.[54][55] Hawk-Eye is also used in tennis to challenge umpiring decisions.[56][57]

Sports and education

Research suggests that sports have the capacity to connect youth to positive adult role models and provide positive development opportunities, as well as promote the learning and application of life skills.[58][59] In recent years the use of sport to reduce crime, as well as to prevent violent extremism and radicalization, has become more widespread, especially as a tool to improve self-esteem, enhance social bonds and provide participants with a feeling of purpose.[59]

There is no high-quality evidence that shows the effectiveness of interventions to increase sports participation of the community in sports such as mass media campaigns, educational sessions, and policy changes.[60] There is also no high-quality studies that investigate the effect of such interventions in promoting healthy behavior change in the community.[61]

Politics

Main article: Politics and sports

Benito Mussolini used the 1934 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Italy, to showcase Fascist Italy.[62][63]Adolf Hitler also used the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, and the 1936 Winter Olympics held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, to promote the Nazi ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race, and inferiority of the Jews and other "undesirables".[63][64] Germany used the Olympics to give off a peaceful image while secretly preparing for war.[65]

When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugby union, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.[66]

In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until the mid-20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he played or supported Association football, or other games seen to be of British origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban, also known as Rule 42,[67] is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban.

Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue, as in the Football War. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.

Sport and politics collided in the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli Olympic team and killed many of their men. This was known as the Munich massacre.

A study of US elections has shown that the result of sports events can affect the results. A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showed that when the home team wins the game before the election, the incumbent candidates can increase their share of the vote by 1.5 percent. A loss had the opposite effect, and the effect is greater for higher-profile teams or unexpected wins and losses.[68] Also, when Washington Call bank mobile vibe customer service win their final game before an election, then the incumbent President is more likely to win, and if the Redskins lose, then the opposition candidate is more likely to win; this has become known as the Redskins Rule.[69][70]

As a means of controlling and subduing populations

Étienne de La Boétie, in his essay Discourse on Voluntary Servitude describes athletic spectacles as means for tyrants to control their subjects by distracting them.

Do not imagine that there is any bird more easily caught by decoy, nor any fish sooner fixed on the hook by wormy bait, than are all these poor fools neatly tricked into servitude by the slightest feather passed, so to speak, before their mouths. Truly it is a marvellous thing that they let themselves be caught so quickly at the slightest tickling of their fancy. Plays, farces, spectacles, gladiators, strange beasts, medals, pictures, and other such opiates, these were for ancient peoples the bait toward slavery, the price of their liberty, the instruments of how to get citi bank credit card. By these practices and enticements the ancient dictators so successfully lulled their subjects under the yoke, that the stupefied peoples, fascinated by the pastimes and vain pleasures flashed before their eyes, learned subservience as naïvely, but not so creditably, as little children learn to read by looking at bright picture books.[71]

Religious views

The foot race was one of the events dedicated to Zeus. Panathenaic amphora, Kleophrades painter, circa 500 BC, Louvre museum.

Sport was an important form of worship in Ancient Greek religion. The ancient Olympic Games, called the Olympiad, were held in honour of the head deity, Zeus, and featured various forms of religious dedication to him tri city national bank online other gods.[72] As many Greeks travelled to see the games, this combination of religion and sport also served as a way of uniting them.

The practice of athletic competitions has been criticised by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry, in which "human beings extol themselves, adore themselves, sacrifice themselves and reward themselves."[73] Sports are seen by these critics as a manifestation of "collective pride" and "national self-deification" in which feats of human power are idolized at the expense of divine worship.[73]

Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting "the entire apparatus of the shows is based upon idolatry."[74] The shows, says Tertullian, excite passions foreign to the calm temperament cultivated by the Christian:

God has enjoined us to deal calmly, gently, quietly, and peacefully with the Holy Spirit, because these things are alone in keeping with the goodness of His nature, with His tenderness and sensitiveness. . Well, how shall this be made to accord with the shows? For the show always leads to spiritual agitation, since where there is pleasure, there is keenness of feeling giving pleasure its zest; and where there is keenness of feeling, there is rivalry giving in turn its zest to that. Then, too, where you have rivalry, you have rage, bitterness, wrath and grief, with all bad things which flow from them – the whole entirely out of keeping with the religion of Christ.[75]

Christian clerics in the Wesleyan-Holiness movement oppose the viewing of or participation in professional sports, believing that professional sports leagues profane the Sabbath as in the modern era, certain associations hold games on the Lord's Day.[76] They also criticize professional sports for its fostering of a commitment that competes with a Christian's primary commitment to God in opposition to 1 Corinthians 7:35, what they perceive to be a lack of modesty in the players' and cheerleaders' uniforms (which are not in conformity with the Methodistic doctrine of outward holiness), its association with violence in opposition to Hebrews 7:26, what they perceive to be the extensive use of profanity among many players that contravenes Colossians 3:8–10, and the frequent presence of gambling, as well as alcohol and other drugs at sporting events, which go against a commitment to teetotalism.[76]

Popularity

Popularity in 2018 of major sports by size of fan base:[7]

See also

Related topics

Sources

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO Text taken from Strengthening the rule www t online de sport law through education: a guide for policymakers, UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

References

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  2. ^ abcCouncil of Europe. "The European sport charter". Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  3. ^"List of Summer and Winter Olympic Sports and Events". The Olympic Movement. 14 November 2018.
  4. ^"World Mind Games". SportAccord. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012.
  5. ^"Members". SportAccord. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012.
  6. ^"Women in sport: Game, sex and match". The Economist. 7 September pay tmobile bill online with debit card ab"The Www t online de sport Popular Sports in the World". www.worldatlas.com. World Atlas. 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  7. ^Harper, Douglas. "sport (n.)". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
  8. ^Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Springfield, MA: G&C Merriam Company. 1967. p. 2206.
  9. ^Roget's II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 1995. ISBN .
  10. ^"Judicial review of 'sport' or 'game' decision begins". BBC News. 22 September 2015.
  11. ^Council of Europe, Revised European Sports Charter (2001)
  12. ^Front, Rebecca (17 July 2011). "A little competition". The Guardian.
  13. ^Scrimgeour, Heidi (17 June 2011). "Why parents hate school sports day". ParentDish.
  14. ^"Sports History in China".
  15. ^"Mr Ahmed D. Touny (EGY), IOC Member". Archived from the original on 29 October 2006.
  16. ^"Persian warriors". Archived from the original on 26 March 2007.
  17. ^"Ancient Olympic Games". 30 July 2018.
  18. ^Sport and the Law: Historical and Cultural Intersections, p. 111, Sarah K. Fields (2014)[ISBN missing]

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