linkedin customer service number uk

Kevin Johnson, “Can Artificial Intelligence Help Nurture Humanity?” LinkedIn, October 23, 2019, accessed January 29, 2020. When Sephora chose SAP SuccessFactors to help them hire 15,000 great people per year to keep up with their worldwide growth, candidate numbers and hiring. (855) 655-5653. Call customer service. Business Sales: (855) 655-5653. General Info.

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Top Reasons of Customers Calls

Consumers Call the Most From

Why Do People Call LinkedIn Customer Service?

Account Question:

  • “I accidentally closed my account”
  • “Trouble resetting password the normal way”
  • “I need my account reinstated”

Activation/ Cancellation Question:

  • “Need to cancel service”
  • “Cancel Premium Membership”
  • “Canceling”

Payments and Charges Question:

  • “Payment”
  • “Billing charge”
  • “Help with billing and account information”

Refund Question:

  • “Refund”
  • “Refund help”
  • “REFUND!!”

Request for Information Question:

  • “Question regarding privacy and my premium status”
  • “I have a personal page and just created a business page. How do I get my followers over to the business page.”
  • “Need information on importing database from linkedin to my computer”

Product/ Service Question:

  • “Hello, I'm Roshan Kumar from patna , India . I'm electrical engineer . I have 6.9 years of work experience in power distribution line. My LinkedIn profile is again restricted . I Can't login my profile. This is my professional profile which is mainly”
  • “Linkedln pr work from home ka from fill nhi ho raha hai”
  • “Subscription”

Employment Question:

  • “Problems with job posting”
  • “To delete a job post”
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Cards Question:

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  • “See sho use my card and the location”

Staff Question:

  • “Customer service”
  • “Look gor my property manager for my home to renew my lease”
  • “Chbge service”

Return/ Replace Question:

  • “Email address change and password”
  • “Email address change and password. Compromised”
  • “Issue with personal information changing phone number and mail I'd”

Shipping and Delivery Question:

  • “I didnt get in my account”
  • “I didn't get in my account”
  • “Today not delivered why”

Website/ Application Question:

  • “Please let me know whether this person using linkedin site is belongs to LinkedIn”
  • “ website to be restored”

Other Question:

  • “Fraud”
  • “Call Mel I have”
  • “Merge”


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LinkedIn Pros and Cons

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Cons: No way to handle a complaint easily, Worst customer service, Have no customer service, No live support service, No customer service

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LinkedIn Corporation is a social networking site that specializes predominantly in professional networking. The company was established in 2002, however the site was launched in 2003. The company offers to its members the opportunity to stay informed about the specialized industry and contacts, the ability to find the people and knowledge for achieving professional goals, the possibility to control professional identity online and much more. The corporate office of the LinkedIn Corporation is situated in Mountain View, Calif, however it also has U.S. offices in San Francisco, Chicago, Omaha, New York and International offices in Toronto, Stockholm, Paris, Melbourne, Dublin, Bangalore, Amsterdam, Delhi, London, Mumbai, Singapore, and Sydney.

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Professional network website

LinkedIn () is an American business and employment-oriented online service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Launched on May 5, 2003,[4] the platform is primarily used for professional networking and career development, and allows job seekers to post their CVs and employers to post jobs. As of 2015, most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals.[5] Since December 2016, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Microsoft. As of September 2021,[update] LinkedIn has 774+ million registered members from over 200 countries and territories.[3]

LinkedIn allows members (both workers and employers) to create profiles and "connect" with each other in an onlinesocial network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether an existing member or not) to become a "connection". LinkedIn can also be used to organize offline events, join groups, write articles, publish job postings, post photos and videos, and more.[6]

Company overview[edit]

Founded in Mountain View, California, LinkedIn is currently headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with 33 global offices in Omaha, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Washington, D.C., São Paulo, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Graz, Milan, Paris, Munich, Madrid, Stockholm, Singapore, Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Tokyo, Melbourne, Sydney, Toronto, Bangalore, Gurgaon, Mumbai, New Delhi, Kuala Lumpur, and Dubai.[7] In May 2020, the company had around 20,500 employees.[8]

LinkedIn's CEO is Ryan Roslansky. Jeff Weiner, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is now the Executive Chairman. Reid Hoffman, founder of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the Board.[9][10] It was funded by Sequoia Capital, Greylock, Bain Capital Ventures,[11]Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders Fund.[12] LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006.[13] Through January 2011, the company had received a total of $103 million of investment.[14]

According to the New York Times, US high school students are now creating LinkedIn profiles to include with their college applications.[15][16] Based in the United States, the site is, as of 2013, available in 24 languages,[9] including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech, Polish, Korean, Indonesian, Malay, and Tagalog.[17][18] LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSEsymbol "LNKD".[19]


Founding to 2002[edit]

The company was founded in December 2002 by Reid Hoffman and the founding team members from PayPal and (Allen Blue, Eric Ly, Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel, David Eves, Ian McNish, Yan Pujante, Chris Saccheri).[20] In late 2003, Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company.[citation needed] In August 2004, LinkedIn reached 1 million users.[21] In March 2006, LinkedIn achieved its first month of profitability.[21] In April 2007, LinkedIn reached 10 million users.[21] In February 2008, LinkedIn launched a mobile version of the site.[22]

In June 2008, Sequoia Capital, Greylock Partners, and other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for $53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of approximately $1 billion.[23] In November 2009, LinkedIn opened its office in Mumbai[24] and soon thereafter in Sydney, as it started its Asia-Pacific team expansion. In 2010, LinkedIn opened an International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland,[25] received a $20 million investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of approximately $2 billion,[26] announced its first acquisition, Mspoke,[27] and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio.[28] In October of that year, Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10 on its Top 100 List of most valuable startups.[29] By December, the company was valued at $1.575 billion in private markets.[30] LinkedIn started its India operations in 2009 and a major part of the first year was dedicated to understanding professionals in India and educating members to leverage LinkedIn for career development.

2011 to present[edit]

LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011. The company traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD", at $45 per share. Shares of LinkedIn rose as much as 171% on their first day of trade on the New York Stock Exchange and closed at $94.25, more than 109% above IPO price. Shortly after the IPO, the site's underlying infrastructure was revised to allow accelerated revision-release cycles.[9] In 2011, LinkedIn earned $154.6 million in advertising revenue alone, surpassing Twitter, which earned $139.5 million.[31] LinkedIn's fourth-quarter 2011, earnings soared because of the company's increase in success in the social media world.[32] By this point, LinkedIn had about 2,100 full-time employees compared to the 500 that it had in 2010.[33]

In April 2014, LinkedIn announced that it had leased 222 Second Street, a 26-story building under construction in San Francisco's SoMa district, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees,[34] with the lease covering 10 years.[35] The goal was to join all San Francisco-based staff (1,250 as of January 2016) in one building, bringing sales and marketing employees together with the research and development team.[35] They started to move in in March 2016.[35] In February 2016, following an earnings report, LinkedIn's shares dropped 43.6% within a single day, down to $108.38 per share. LinkedIn lost $10 billion of its market capitalization that day.[36][37]

In 2016, access to LinkedIn was blocked by Russian authorities for non-compliance with the 2015 national legislation that requires social media networks to store citizens' personal data on servers located in Russia.[38]

On June 13, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would acquire LinkedIn for $196 a share, a total value of $26.2 billion and the largest acquisition made by Microsoft to date. The acquisition would be an all-cash, debt-financed transaction. Microsoft would allow LinkedIn to "retain its distinct brand, culture and independence", with Weiner to remain as CEO, who would then report to Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. Analysts believed Microsoft saw the opportunity to integrate LinkedIn with its Office product suite to help better integrate the professional network system with its products. The deal was completed on December 8, 2016.[39]

In late 2016, LinkedIn announced a planned increase of 200 new positions in its Dublin office, which would bring the total employee count to 1,200.[40]

As of 2017, 94% of B2B marketers use LinkedIn to distribute content.[41]

Soon after LinkedIn's acquisition by Microsoft, on January 19, 2017, LinkedIn's new desktop version was introduced.[42] The new version was meant to make the user experience seamless across mobile and desktop. Some of the changes were made according to the feedback received from the previously launched mobile app. Features that were not heavily used were removed. For example, the contact tagging and filtering features are not supported anymore.[43]

Following the launch of the new user interface (UI), some users, complained about the missing features which were there in the older version, slowness, and bugs in it. The issues were faced by both free and premium users, and with both the desktop version and the mobile version of the site.

In 2019, LinkedIn launched globally the feature Open for Business that enables freelancers to be discovered on the platform.[44][45] LinkedIn Events was launched in the same year.[46][47]

In June 2020, Jeff Weiner stepped down as CEO and become executive chairman after 11 years in the role. Ryan Roslansky stepped up as CEO from his previous position as the senior vice president of product.[48]

In late July 2020, LinkedIn announced it laid off 960 employees, about 6 percent of total workforce, from the talent acquisition and global sales teams. In an email to all employees, CEO Ryan Roslansky said the cuts were due to effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic.[49]

In April 2021, CyberNews claimed that 500 million LinkedIn's accounts have leaked online.[50] However, LinkedIn stated that "We have investigated an alleged set of LinkedIn data that has been posted for sale and have determined that it is actually an aggregation of data from a number of websites and companies".[51][52]

In June 2021, PrivacySharks claimed that more than 700 million LinkedIn records was on sale on a hacker forum.[53][54] LinkedIn later stated that this is not a breach, but scraped data which is also a violation of their Terms of Service.[55]

Microsoft ended LinkedIn operations in China in October 2021.[56]


In July 2012, LinkedIn acquired 15 key Diggpatents for $4 million including a "click a button to vote up a story" patent.[57]

Number Acquisition date Company Business Country Price Description Ref.
1 August 4, 2010mspoke Adaptive personalization of content  USA$0.6 million[58]LinkedIn Recommendations [59]
2 September 23, 2010ChoiceVendor Social B2B Reviews  USA$3.9 million[60]Rate and review B2B service providers [61]
3 January 26, 2011CardMunch Social Contacts  USA$1.7 million[58]Scan and import business cards [62]
4 October 5, 2011Connected Social CRM  USA- LinkedIn Connected [63]
5 October 11, 2011IndexTank Social search  USA- LinkedIn Search [64]
6 February 22, 2012Rapportive Social Contacts  USA$15 million[65]- [66]
7 May 3, 2012SlideShareSocial Content  USA$119 million Give LinkedIn members a way to discover people through content [67]
8 April 11, 2013PulseWeb / Mobile newsreader  USA$90 million Definitive professional publishing platform [68]
9 February 6, 2014Bright.comJob Matching  USA$120 million [69]
10 July 14, 2014Newsle Web application  USA- Allows users to follow real news about their Facebook friends, LinkedIn contacts, and public figures. [70]
11 July 22, 2014Bizo Web application  USA$175 million Helps advertisers reach businesses and professionals [71]
12 March 16, 2015Careerify Web application  Canada- Helps businesses hire people using social media [72]
13 April 2, Web application  USA- Surfaces insights about people in your networks right before you meet them [73]
14 April 9, 2015Lynda.comeLearning  USA$1.5 billion Lets users learn business, technology, software, and creative skills through videos [74]
15 August 28, 2015Fliptop Predictive Sales and Marketing Firm  USA- Using data science to help companies close more sales [75]
16 February 4, 2016ConnectifierWeb application  USA- Helps companies with their recruiting [76]
17 July 26, 2016PointDrive Web application  USA- Lets salespeople share visual content with prospective clients to help seal the deal [77]
18 September 16, 2018Glint Inc. Web application  USA- Employee engagement platform. [78]
19 May 28, 2019 Drawbridge Marketing Solutions  USA[79]

Perkins lawsuit[edit]

In 2013, a class actionlawsuit entitled Perkins vs. LinkedIn Corp was filed against the company, accusing it of automatically sending invitations to contacts in a member's email address book without permission. The court agreed with LinkedIn that permission had in fact been given for invitations to be sent, but not for the two further reminder emails.[80] LinkedIn settled the lawsuit in 2015 for $13 million.[81] Many members should have received a notice in their email with the subject line "Legal Notice of Settlement of Class Action". The Case No. is 13-CV-04303-LHK.[82]

hiQ Labs v. LinkedIn[edit]

Main article: hiQ Labs v. LinkedIn

In May 2017, LinkedIn sent a Cease-And-Desist letter to hiQ Labs, a Silicon Valley startup that collects data from public profiles and provides analysis of this data to its customers. The letter demanded that hiQ immediately cease "scraping" data from LinkedIn's servers, claiming violations of the CFAA (Computer Fraud and Abuse Act) and the DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act).

In response, hiQ sued LinkedIn in the Northern District of California in San Francisco, asking the court to prohibit LinkedIn from blocking its access to public profiles while the court considered the merits of its request. The court served a preliminary injunction against LinkedIn, which was then forced to allow hiQ to continue to collect public data. LinkedIn appealed this ruling; in September 2019, the appeals court rejected LinkedIn's arguments and the preliminary injunction was upheld. The dispute is ongoing.


Social media websites may also use "traditional" marketing approaches, as seen in these LinkedIn-branded chocolates.

As of 2015, LinkedIn had more than 400 million members in over 200 countries and territories.[9][83] It is significantly ahead of its competitors Viadeo (50 million as of 2013)[84] and XING (11 million as of 2016).[85] In 2011, its membership grew by approximately two new members every second.[86] In 2020, LinkedIn's membership grew to over 690 million LinkedIn members.[3] As of September 2021, LinkedIn has 774+ million registered members from over 200 countries and territories.[3]

Platform and features[edit]

User profile network[edit]

Basic functionality[edit]

The basic functionality of LinkedIn allows users to create profiles, which for employees typically consist of a curriculum vitae describing their work experience, education and training, skills, and a personal photo. Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates. Users can find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by someone in one's contact network. Users can save jobs that they would like to apply for. Users also have the ability to follow different companies.

The site also enables members to make "connections" to each other in an onlinesocial network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone to become a connection. Users can obtain introductions to the connections of connections (termed second-degree connections) and connections of second-degree connections (termed third-degree connections).

A member's list of connections can be used in a number of ways. For example, users can search for second-degree connections who work at a company they are interested in, and then ask a specific first-degree connection in common for an introduction.[87] The "gated-access approach" (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship, or the intervention of a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's users. LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[88]

Users can interact with each other in a variety of ways:

  • Connections can interact by choosing to "like" posts and "congratulate" others on updates such as birthdays, anniversaries and new positions, as well as by direct messaging.
  • Users can share video with text and filters with the introduction of LinkedIn Video.[89][90]
  • Users can write posts and articles[91] within the LinkedIn platform to share with their network.

Since September 2012, LinkedIn has enabled users to "endorse" each other's skills. However, there is no way of flagging anything other than positive content.[92] LinkedIn solicits endorsements using algorithms that generate skills members might have. Members cannot opt out of such solicitations, with the result that it sometimes appears that a member is soliciting an endorsement for a non-existent skill.[93]


LinkedIn 'applications' often refers to external third-party applications that interact with LinkedIn's developer API. However, in some cases, it could refer to sanctioned applications featured on a user's profile page.

External, third party applications[edit]

On February 12, 2015, LinkedIn released an updated terms of use for their developer API.[94] The developer API allows both companies and individuals the ability to interact with LinkedIn's data through creation of managed third-party applications. Applications must go through a review process and request permission from the user before accessing a user's data.

Normal use of the API is outlined in LinkedIn's developer documents,[95] including:

  • Sign into external services using LinkedIn
  • Add items or attributes to a user profile
  • Share items or articles to user's timeline

Embedded in profile[edit]

In October 2008, LinkedIn enabled an "applications platform" which allows external online services to be embedded within a member's profile page. Among the initial applications were an Amazon Reading List that allows LinkedIn members to display books they are reading, a connection to Tripit, and a Six Apart, WordPress and TypePad application that allows members to display their latest blog postings within their LinkedIn profile.[96] In November 2010, LinkedIn allowed businesses to list products and services on company profile pages; it also permitted LinkedIn members to "recommend" products and services and write reviews.[97] Shortly after, some of the external services were no longer supported, including Amazon's Reading List.[citation needed]


A mobile version of the site was launched in February 2008 and made available in six languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish.[98] In January 2011, LinkedIn acquired CardMunch, a mobile app maker that scans business cards and converts into contacts.[99] In June 2013, CardMunch was noted as an available LinkedIn app.[9] In October 2013, LinkedIn announced a service for iPhone users called "Intro", which inserts a thumbnail of a person's LinkedIn profile in correspondence with that person when reading mail messages in the native iOS Mail program.[100] This is accomplished by re-routing all emails from and to the iPhone through LinkedIn servers, which security firm Bishop Fox asserts has serious privacy implications, violates many organizations' security policies, and resembles a man-in-the-middle attack.[101][102]


LinkedIn also supports daily the formation of interest groups, and as of March 29, 2012 there are 1,248,019 such groups whose membership varies from 1 to 744,662.[103][104] Groups support a limited form of discussion area, moderated by the group owners and managers.[105] Groups may be private, accessible to members only or may be open to Internet users in general to read, though they must join in order to post messages. Since groups offer the functionality to reach a wide audience without so easily falling foul of anti-spam solutions, there is a constant stream of spam postings, and there now exists a range of firms who offer a spamming service for this very purpose. LinkedIn has devised a few mechanisms to reduce the volume of spam,[106] but recently[when?] took the decision to remove the ability of group owners to inspect the email address of new members in order to determine if they were spammers.[citation needed] Groups also keep their members informed through emails with updates to the group, including most talked about discussions within your professional circles.[103][107]

In December 2011, LinkedIn announced that they are rolling out polls to groups.[108] In November 2013, LinkedIn announced the addition of Showcase Pages to the platform.[109] In 2014, LinkedIn announced they were going to be removing Product and Services Pages[110] paving the way for a greater focus on Showcase Pages.[111]

Knowledge graph[edit]

LinkedIn maintains an internal knowledge graph of entities (people, organizations, groups) that helps it connect everyone working in a field or at an organization or network. This can be used to query the neighborhood around each entity to find updates that might be related to it.[112] This also lets them train machine learning models that can infer new properties about an entity, or new information that may apply to it, for both summary views and for analytics.[113]

Discontinued features[edit]

In January 2013, LinkedIn dropped support for LinkedIn Answers and cited a new 'focus on development of new and more engaging ways to share and discuss professional topics across LinkedIn' as the reason for the retirement of the feature. The feature had been launched in 2007 and allowed users to post question to their network and allowed users to rank answers.

On September 1, 2014, LinkedIn retired InMaps, a feature which allowed you to visualize your professional network.[114] The feature had been in use since January 2011.

According to the company's website, LinkedIn Referrals will no longer be available after May 18, 2018.[115]


Personal branding[edit]

When a user accepts an invitation from another user, they have a first-level connection; the user is indirectly connected to the other user's connections with what LinkedIn terms second-level and third-level connections.

LinkedIn is particularly well-suited for personal branding which, according to Sandra Long, entails "actively managing one's image and unique value" to position oneself for career opportunities.[116] LinkedIn has evolved from being a mere platform for job searchers into a social network which allows users a chance to create a personal brand.[117] Career coach Pamela Green describes a personal brand as the "emotional experience you want people to have as a result of interacting with you," and a LinkedIn profile is an aspect of that.[118] A contrasting report suggests that a personal brand is "a public-facing persona, exhibited on LinkedIn, Twitter and other networks, that showcases expertise and fosters new connections."[119]

LinkedIn allows professionals to build exposure for their personal brand within the site itself as well as in the World Wide Web as a whole. With a tool that LinkedIn dubs a Profile Strength Meter, the site encourages users to offer enough information in their profile to optimize visibility by search engines. It can strengthen a user's LinkedIn presence if he or she belongs to professional groups in the site.[120][116] The site enables users to add video to their profiles.[121] Some users hire a professional photographer for their profile photo.[122] Video presentations can be added to one's profile.[123] LinkedIn's capabilities have been expanding so rapidly that a cottage industry of outside consultants has grown up to help users navigate the system.[124][121][125] A particular emphasis is helping users with their LinkedIn profiles.[124]

There's no hiding in the long grass on LinkedIn ... The number one mistake people make on the profile is to not have a photo.

— Sandra Long of Post Road Consulting, 2017[126]

In October 2012, LinkedIn launched the LinkedIn Influencers program, which features global thought leaders who share their professional insights with LinkedIn's members. As of May 2016, there are 750+ Influencers.[127] The program is invite-only and features leaders from a range of industries including Richard Branson, Narendra Modi, Arianna Huffington, Greg McKeown, Rahm Emanuel, Jamie Dimon, Martha Stewart, Deepak Chopra, Jack Welch, and Bill Gates.[128][129]

Job seeking[edit]

LinkedIn is widely used by job seekers and employers. According to Jack Meyer, the site has become the "premier digital platform" for professionals to network online.[120] In Australia, which has approximately twelve million working professionals, ten million of them are on LinkedIn, according to Anastasia Santoreneos, suggesting that the probability was high that one's "future employer is probably on the site."[130] According to one estimate based on worldwide figures, 122 million users got job interviews via LinkedIn and 35 million were hired by a LinkedIn online connection.[131]

LinkedIn also allows users to research companies, non-profit organizations, and governments they may be interested in working for. Typing the name of a company or organization in the search box causes pop-up data about the company or organization to appear. Such data may include the ratio of female to male employees, the percentage of the most common titles/positions held within the company, the location of the company's headquarters and offices, and a list of present and former employees. In July 2011, LinkedIn launched a new feature allowing companies to include an "Apply with LinkedIn" button on job listing pages.[132] The new plugin allowed potential employees to apply for positions using their LinkedIn profiles as resumes.[132]

LinkedIn can help small businesses connect with customers.[133] In the site's parlance, two users have a "first-degree connection" when one accepts an invitation from another.[131] People connected to each of them are "second-degree connections" and persons connected to the second-degree connections are "third-degree connections."[131] This forms a user's internal LinkedIn network, making the user's profile more likely to appear in searches.

LinkedIn's Profinder is a marketplace where freelancers can (for a monthly subscription fee) bid for project proposals submitted by individuals and small businesses .[134] In 2017, it had around 60,000 freelancers in more than 140 service areas, such as headshot photography, bookkeeping or tax filing.[134]

The premise for connecting with someone has shifted significantly in recent years. Prior to the 2017 new interface being launched, LinkedIn encouraged connections between people who'd already worked together, studied together, done business together or the like. Since 2017 that step has been removed from the connection request process - and users are allowed to connect with up to 30,000 people. This change means LinkedIn is a more proactive networking site, be that for job applicants trying to secure a career move or for salespeople wanting to generate new client leads.[116]

Top Companies[edit]

LinkedIn Top Companies is a series of lists published by LinkedIn, identifying companies in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom that are attracting the most intense interest from job candidates. The 2019 lists identified Google's parent company, Alphabet, as the most sought-after U.S. company, with Facebook ranked second and Amazon ranked third.[135] The lists are based on more than one billion actions by LinkedIn members worldwide. The Top Companies lists were started in 2016 and are published annually.

The 2021 top list identified Amazon as the top company with Alphabet ranked second and JPMorgan & Chase Co. ranked third.[136]

Top Voices and other rankings[edit]

Since 2015, LinkedIn has published annual rankings of Top Voices on the platform, recognizing "members that generated the most engagement and interaction with their posts."[137] The 2020 lists[138] included 14 industry categories, ranging from data science to sports, as well as 14 country lists, extending from Australia to Italy.

LinkedIn also publishes data-driven annual rankings of the Top Startups in more than a dozen countries, based on "employment growth, job interest from potential candidates, engagement, and attraction of top talent."[139] The 2020 U.S. Top Startups report listed, Doordash and Robinhood in the top three spots.[140]

Advertising and for-pay research[edit]

In mid-2008, LinkedIn launched LinkedIn DirectAds as a form of sponsored advertising.[141] In October 2008, LinkedIn revealed plans to open its social network of 30 million professionals globally as a potential sample for business-to-business research. It is testing a potential social network revenue model – research that to some appears more promising than advertising.[142] On July 23, 2013, LinkedIn announced their Sponsored Updates ad service. Individuals and companies can now pay a fee to have LinkedIn sponsor their content and spread it to their user base. This is a common way for social media sites such as LinkedIn to generate revenue.[143]

Publishing platform[edit]

On May 7, 2015, LinkedIn added an analytics tool to its publishing platform. The tool allows authors to better track traffic that their posts receive.[144]

Future plans[edit]

Economic graph[edit]

Inspired by Facebook's "social graph", LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner set a goal in 2012 to create an "economic graph" within a decade.[145] The goal was to create a comprehensive digital map of the world economy and the connections within it.[146] The economic graph was to be built on the company's current platform with data nodes including companies, jobs, skills, volunteer opportunities, educational institutions, and content.[147][148] They have been hoping to include all the job listings in the world, all the skills required to get those jobs, all the professionals who could fill them, and all the companies (nonprofit and for-profit) at which they work. The ultimate goal is to make the world economy and job market more efficient through increased transparency.[145] In June 2014, the company announced its "Galene" search architecture to give users access to the economic graph's data with more thorough filtering of data, via user searches like "Engineers with Hadoop experience in Brazil."[149][150]

LinkedIn has used economic graph data to research several topics on the job market, including popular destination cities of recent college graduates,[151] areas with high concentrations of technology skills,[152] and common career transitions.[153] LinkedIn provided the City of New York with data from economic graph showing "in-demand" tech skills for the city's "Tech Talent Pipeline" project.[154]


LinkedIn has been described by online trade publicationTechRepublic as having "become the de facto tool for professional networking".[155] LinkedIn has also been praised for its usefulness in fostering business relationships.[156] "LinkedIn is, far and away, the most advantageous social networking tool available to job seekers and business professionals today," according to Forbes.[157] LinkedIn has inspired the creation of specialised professional networking opportunities, such as co-founder Eddie Lou's Chicago startup, Shiftgig (released in 2012 as a platform for hourly workers).[158]

Research on labor market effects[edit]

See also: Criticism of Facebook § Envy

In 2010, Social Science Computer Review published research by economists Ralf Caers and Vanessa Castelyns who sent an online questionnaire to 398 and 353 LinkedIn and Facebook users respectively in Belgium and found that both sites had become tools for recruiting job applicants for professional occupations as well as additional information about applicants, and that it was being used by recruiters to decide which applicants would receive interviews.[159] In May 2017, Research Policy published an analysis of PhD holders use of LinkedIn and found that PhD holders who move into industry were more likely to have LinkedIn accounts and to have larger networks of LinkedIn connections, were more likely to use LinkedIn if they had co-authors abroad, and to have wider networks if they moved abroad after obtaining their PhD.[160]

Also in 2017, sociologist Ofer Sharone conducted interviews with unemployed workers to research the effects of LinkedIn and Facebook as labor market intermediaries and found that social networking services (SNS) have had a filtration effect that has little to do with evaluations of merit, and that the SNS filtration effect has exerted new pressures on workers to manage their careers to conform to the logic of the SNS filtration effect.[161] In October 2018, Foster School of Business professors Melissa Rhee, Elina Hwang, and Yong Tan performed an empirical analysis of whether the common professional networking tactic by job seekers of creating LinkedIn connections with professionals who work at a target company or in a target field is actually instrumental in obtaining referrals and found instead that job seekers were less likely to be referred by employees who were employed by the target company or in the target field due to job similarity and self-protection from competition. Rhee, Hwang, and Tan further found that referring employees in higher hierarchical positions than the job candidates were more likely to provide referrals and that gender homophily did not reduce the competition self-protection effect.[162]

In July 2019, sociologists Steve McDonald, Amanda K. Damarin, Jenelle Lawhorne, and Annika Wilcox performed qualitative interviews with 61 HR recruiters in two metropolitan areas in the Southern United States and found that recruiters filling low- and general-skilled positions typically posted advertisements on online job boards while recruiters filling high-skilled or supervisor positions targeted passive candidates on LinkedIn (i.e. employed workers not actively seeking work but possibly willing to change positions), and concluded that this is resulting in a bifurcated winner-takes-all job market with recruiters focusing their efforts on poaching already employed high-skilled workers while active job seekers are relegated to hyper-competitive online job boards.[163]

In a September 2019 working paper, economists Laurel Wheeler, Robert Garlick, and RTI International scholars Eric Johnson, Patrick Shaw, and Marissa Gargano ran a randomized evaluation of training job seekers in South Africa to use LinkedIn as part of job readiness programs. The evaluation found that the training increased the job seekers employment by approximately 10 percent by reducing information frictions between job seekers and prospective employers, that the training had this effect for approximately 12 months, and that while the training may also have facilitated referrals, it did not reduce job search costs and the jobs for the treatment and control groups in the evaluation had equal probabilities of retention, promotion, and obtaining a permanent contract.[164] In 2020, Applied Economics published research by economists Steffen Brenner, Sezen Aksin Sivrikaya, and Joachim Schwalbach using LinkedIn demonstrating that high status individuals self-select into professional networking services rather than workers unsatisfied with their career status adversely selecting into the services to receive networking benefits.[165]

Criticism and controversies[edit]

LinkedIn has received criticism, primarily regarding e-mail address mining and auto-update. Changing the description below a member's name is seen as a change in a job title, even if it is just a wording change or even a change to "unemployed". Unless a member opts to "turn off activity updates", an update is sent to all of that person's contacts, telling them to congratulate the member on the "new job".[166]

The feature that allows LinkedIn members to "endorse" each other's skills and experience has been criticized as meaningless, since the endorsements are not necessarily accurate or given by people who have familiarity with the member's skills.[167] In October 2016, LinkedIn acknowledged that it "really does matter who endorsed you" and began highlighting endorsements from "coworkers and other mutual connections" to address the criticism.[168]

Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending[edit]

LinkedIn sends "invite emails" to Outlook contacts from its members' email accounts, without obtaining their consent. The "invitations" give the impression that the e-mail holder themself has sent the invitation. If there is no response, the answer will be repeated several times ("You have not yet answered XY's invitation.") LinkedIn was sued in the United States on charges of hijacking e-mail accounts and spamming. The company argued with the right to freedom of expression. In addition, the users concerned would be supported in building a network.[169][170][171]

The sign-up process includes users entering their email password (there is an opt-out feature). LinkedIn will then offer to send out contact invitations to all members in that address book or that the user has had email conversations with. When the member's email address book is opened, it is opened with all email addresses selected, and the member is advised invitations will be sent to "selected" email addresses, or to all. LinkedIn was sued for sending out another two follow-up invitations to each contact from members to link to friends who had ignored the initial, authorized invitation.

In November 2014, LinkedIn lost a motion to dismiss the lawsuit, in a ruling that the invitations were advertisements not broadly protected by free speech rights that would otherwise permit use of people's names and images without authorization.[172][173][174] The lawsuit was eventually settled in 2015 in favor of LinkedIn members.[81]

Security and technology[edit]

Main article: 2012 LinkedIn hack

In June 2012, cryptographic hashes of approximately 6.4 million LinkedIn user passwords were stolen by Yevgeniy Nikulin and other hackers who then published the stolen hashes online.[175] This action is known as the 2012 LinkedIn hack. In response to the incident, LinkedIn asked its users to change their passwords. Security experts criticized LinkedIn for not salting their password file and for using a single iteration of SHA-1.[176] On May 31, 2013, LinkedIn added two-factor authentication, an important security enhancement for preventing hackers from gaining access to accounts.[177] In May 2016, 117 million LinkedIn usernames and passwords were offered for sale online for the equivalent of $2,200.[178] These account details are believed to be sourced from the original 2012 LinkedIn hack, in which the number of user IDs stolen had been underestimated. To handle the large volume of emails sent to its users every day with notifications for messages, profile views, important happenings in their network, and other things, LinkedIn uses the Momentum email platform from Message Systems.[179]

In 2014, Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit (CTU) discovered that Threat Group-2889, an Iran-based group, created 25 fake LinkedIn accounts. The accounts were either fully developed personas or supporting personas. They use spearphishing and malicious websites against their victims.[180][third-party source needed]

According to reporting by Le Figaro, France's General Directorate for Internal Security and Directorate-General for External Security believe that Chinese spies have used LinkedIn to target thousands of business and government officials as potential sources of information.[181]

In 2017, Germany's Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) published information alleging that Chinese intelligence services had created fake social media profiles on sites such as LinkedIn, using them to gather information on German politicians and government officials.[182][183]

Moving emails to LinkedIn servers[edit]

At the end of 2013, it was announced that the LinkedIn app intercepted users' emails and quietly moved them to LinkedIn servers for full access.[184] LinkedIn used man-in-the-middle attacks.[185]

Privacy policy[edit]

The German Stiftung Warentest has criticized that the balance of rights between users and LinkedIn is disproportionate, restricting users' rights excessively while granting the company far-reaching rights.[186] It has also been claimed that LinkedIn does not respond to consumer protection center requests.[187]

In November 2016, Russia announced its intention to block the network in its own country, as it "illegally stores data of Russian users on servers abroad." The relevant law had been in force there since 2014.[188][189]

Potential 2018 breach, or extended impacts from earlier incidents[edit]

In July 2018, Credit Wise reported "dark web" email and password exposures from LinkedIn. Shortly thereafter, users began receiving extortion emails, using that information as "evidence" that users' contacts had been hacked, and threatening to expose pornographic videos featuring the users. LinkedIn asserts that this is related to the 2012 breach; however, there is no evidence that this is the case.[190]

International restrictions[edit]

In 2009, Syrian users reported that LinkedIn server stopped accepting connections originating from IP addresses assigned to Syria. The company's customer support stated that services provided by them are subject to US export and re-export control laws and regulations and "As such, and as a matter of corporate policy, we do not allow member accounts or access to our site from Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria."[191]

In February 2011, it was reported that LinkedIn was being blocked in China after calls for a "Jasmine Revolution". It was speculated to have been blocked because it is an easy way for dissidents to access Twitter, which had been blocked previously.[192] After a day of being blocked, LinkedIn access was restored in China.[193]

In February 2014, LinkedIn launched its Simplified Chinese language version named "领英" (pinyin: Lǐngyīng; lit. 'leading elite'), officially extending their service in China.[194][195] LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner acknowledged in a blog post that they would have to censor some of the content that users post on its website in order to comply with Chinese rules, but he also said the benefits of providing its online service to people in China outweighed those concerns.[194][196] Since Autumn 2017 job postings from western countries for China aren't possible anymore.[197]

On September 23, 2016, a Moscow court ruled that LinkedIn must be blocked in Russia for violating a new data retention law, which requires the user data of Russian citizens to be stored on servers within the country. This ban was upheld on November 10, 2016, and all Russian ISPs began blocking LinkedIn thereafter. LinkedIn's mobile app was also banned from Google Play Store and iOS App Store in Russia in January 2017.[198][199] In July 2021 it was also blocked in Kazakhstan.[200]

On October 14, 2021, after reports of several academicians and reporters who received notifications regarding their profiles will be blocked in China, Microsoft confirmed that LinkedIn will be shutting down in China and replaced with InJobs, a China exclusive app, citing difficulties in operating environments and increasing compliance requirements.[201]

Open source contributions[edit]

Since 2010, LinkedIn has contributed multiple internal technologies, tools, and software products to the open source domain.[202] Notable among these projects is Apache Kafka, which was built and open sourced at LinkedIn in 2011.[203] The team behind the creation of Kafka formed a LinkedIn spin-out company in 2014 named Confluent,[204] which went public with an IPO in 2021.[205] A list of LinkedIn's active open source projects can be found on their engineering website.[206]

Surveillance and NSA program[edit]

In the 2013 global surveillance disclosures, documents released by Edward Snowden revealed that British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (an intelligence and security organisation) infiltrated the Belgian telecommunications network Belgacom by luring employees to a false LinkedIn page.[207]


Massive amounts of data from LinkedIn allow scientists and machine learning researchers to extract insights and build product features.[208] For example, this data can help to shape patterns of deception in resumes. Findings suggested that people commonly lie about their hobbies rather than their work experience on online resumes.[209]

See also[edit]


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    LinkedIn statistics look a little different than they do for some of the other social networks. It’s not the biggest social network, or the one with the largest reach. Some of the numbers are smaller. At first glance, they may not seem as impressive for marketers looking to make a big impression.

    But the 38 LinkedIn stats below prove that theory wrong. They show that this business-oriented network is in fact a must for marketers of both B2B and B2C products and services.

    When you understand the ways both LinkedIn members and other brands use this network, you gain insights into how you can better incorporate LinkedIn into your social marketing plan for 2021.

    Bonus:Download a free guide that shows the 11 tactics Hootsuite’s social media team used to grow their LinkedIn audience from 0 to 278,000 followers.

    General LinkedIn statistics

    1. LinkedIn turns 18 years old in 2021

    The network officially launched on May 5, 2003: nine months before Facebook launched at Harvard. LinkedIn is the oldest of the major social networks still in use today.

    2. LinkedIn has 33 offices and 15,800 employees

    Those offices are located in more than 30 cities worldwide, including nine in the United States.

    3. LinkedIn is available in 24 languages

    This allows many global users to access the network in their native language.

    4. Remote jobs on LinkedIn increased 2.5x from March to October 2020

    And 15% of all job applications in the U.S. went to remote jobs in November 2020. These LinkedIn stats capture how the way we work changed in 2020.

    With more business decision makers and potential new hires working from home, online connections have become increasingly important for business this year.

    5. LinkedIn is the most trusted social network in the U.S.

    73% of social media users at least somewhat agree that LinkedIn protects their privacy and data. Compare that to just 53% for Facebook.

    LinkedIn user stats

    6. LinkedIn has 722 million members

    To put that number in context, Instagram currently has 1 billion users, and Facebook has 2.74 billion. It’s not the largest of the social networks, but with a specific business focus, it’s an audience worth noticing.

    7. 57% of LinkedIn users are men, and 43% are women

    Men significantly outnumber women on LinkedIn overall, but you’ll need to do some research to understand the makeup of your specific LinkedIn audience.

    Note that LinkedIn does not report any genders other than male or female.

    8. 76% of LinkedIn’s users are outside the U.S.

    While the U.S. is LinkedIn’s biggest market at 174M users, the network has gained traction around the world.

    LinkedIn’s members live in more than 200 countries. This includes 163 million users in Europe (including the UK), 196 million in Asia Pacific and 107 million in Latin America.

    Source: LinkedIn

    9. 27.1% of all Internet users in Canada use LinkedIn each month

    And 44% of all Internet users in Canada have an account on this social platform. That’s lower than Facebook (83%) and Instagram (51%), but higher than Twitter (42%) and Pinterest (40%).

    Source: eMarketer

    LinkedIn reports a total of 17 million users in Canada.

    10. 59.9% of LinkedIn’s users are between 25 and 34 years old

    It’s not a surprise that more than half of LinkedIn users are in the age group that is starting and growing their careers. It’s a professional network, after all.

    Source: Hootsuite & We Are Social

    This is an important group for brands: 41% of older millennials—aged 26 to 35—have decision-making responsibilities.

    11. 40% of LinkedIn users change their job, company, or industry every 4 years

    The potential market for your product is always shifting. Ad targeting is good, but targeting your ads too narrowly means you miss out on potential future decision makers.

    12. Bill Gates penned 50% of the 10 most engaging LinkedIn articles in November 2020

    In fact, Gates often appears in the list of most engaging articles shared monthly in the LinkedIn Water Cooler Series. Yes, he benefits from name recognition. But he’s also known for tapping into the issues people care about right now.

    Why should marketers care about Bill Gates’ success on LinkedIn? It’s a good opportunity to model success. Take a look at some of his content to see what you can learn from his approach.

    LinkedIn usage stats

    13. 40 million people use LinkedIn to search for jobs each week

    If your company is hiring, your LinkedIn Page can be a key source of potential new employees.

    When hiring managers can’t screen potential new hires in person, tools like LinkedIn are even more important. And 81% of talent professionals say that virtual recruiting will continue when the pandemic is over.

    14. 3 people are hired through LinkedIn every minute

    If that last LinkedIn stat didn’t convince you it’s worth having a solid presence on this network, this one should. Any company planning to hire new employees in 2021 needs a polished LinkedIn Page.

    15. LinkedIn saw a 55% increase in conversations among connections in 2020

    That’s a year-over-year calculation for Q1 of the 2021 fiscal year. With connections unable to meet in person, they’re messaging each other more than ever on this business social network.

    16. Content creation on LinkedIn increased 60% in 2020

    Companies and individual LinkedIn members have ramped up their LinkedIn content to stay in touch with professional contacts and colleagues in this unprecedented year.

    (Phew, we made it all the way to stat 16 before saying “unprecedented.”)

    17. LinkedIn Live streams increased by 437% in 2020

    That’s a year-over-year calculation for October 2020.

    LinkedIn Live launched in February 2019 but really took off during this year of finding alternate ways to connect. The number of LinkedIn Live streams increased 89% from March to June alone.

    18. 57% of LinkedIn’s traffic is mobile

    This percentage hasn’t changed since 2018, so take it with a grain of salt.

    However, it makes sense that LinkedIn’s user base would be more likely to use the network from a computer, since they may be browsing during working hours, or for work purposes.

    19. LinkedIn has 15x more content impressions than job postings

    Nine billion content impressions, to be precise.

    LinkedIn has transitioned from being “just” a recruitment platform to being a professional network where people educate and inform themselves and learn about other companies in their industry.

    20. 30% of a company’s engagement on LinkedIn comes from employees

    This makes a lot of sense: your company’s employees are the people who care most about seeing your brand succeed.

    Boosting brand reputation via employee advocacy is a winning strategy for companies that develop a comprehensive program.

    21. Employees are 14x more likely to share content from their employers than other types of content on LinkedIn

    This reinforces the LinkedIn stat above. Your employees are an important part of your LinkedIn marketing strategy.

    If you’re not sure where to get started on employee advocacy, check out Hootsuite Amplify.

    22. LinkedIn posts with images get 2x higher engagement

    Larger images do even better, with 38% higher click-through rates than other images. LinkedIn recommends 1200 x 627 pixels.

    Not sure what kinds of images to post with your LinkedIn updates? Check out these free stock photo sites.

    23. LinkedIn users are 20x more likely to re-share a video post

    Video is the most re-shared form of content on LinkedIn. If you want other LinkedIn members to help spread your message for you, video is the way to go.

    LinkedIn advertising statistics

    24. An ad on LinkedIn can reach 13% of the world’s population

    That is, 13% of people over the age of thirteen. While this isn’t the highest reach among social networks, LinkedIn has the advantage of a self-selected user-base that cares about their work.

    25. LinkedIn’s ad reach grew by 25 million people in Q4 2020

    That’s a 3.5% increase from Q3.

    26. LinkedIn ads offer more than 200 targeting characteristics

    From job experience to education to firm industry and size to interests, there are plenty of ways to make sure your ad matches the right audience.

    27. Ad exposure on LinkedIn can increase purchase intent by 33%

    As we said earlier, LinkedIn is not just about recruiting anymore. Ads can boost purchase intent, leading to more sales down the road.

    LinkedIn business statistics

    28. 4 out of 5 people on LinkedIn “drive business decisions”

    The platform’s chief selling point for marketers is its ability to target an audience by their job, not just their demographics.

    This allows B2B marketers in particular to reach the people who make the buying decisions.

    29. There are 61 million “senior-level influencers” on LinkedIn

    These are not influencers in the sense of influencer marketing. Instead, they are top decision makers or decision impactors within organizations.

    30. 55 million companies are on LinkedIn

    It’s no wonder, as this network allows brands to reach both consumers and B2B prospects, as well as new hires.

    31. LinkedIn has more than 10,000 B2B software Product Pages

    Product Pages are a new LinkedIn feature for 2020. Use them to highlight specific products with ratings and reviews, generate leads, and incorporate custom call-to-action buttons.

    32. 96% of B2B content marketers use LinkedIn for organic social marketing

    This makes LinkedIn the top network for B2B content marketers, followed by Twitter and Facebook (82% each).

    This is not surprising, given that LinkedIn offers a context in which people expect and seek out business-related content.

    Source: Content Marketing Institute

    33. 80% of B2B content marketers use LinkedIn ads

    It’s not a shock that the top organic social network for B2B marketers is also the top paid social network. Facebook comes in next at 67%, followed by Twitter at 27%.

    If you’re new to using paid features on LinkedIn, we’ve got a whole guide to LinkedIn ads to get you started.

    34. 33% of B2B decision makers use LinkedIn to research purchases

    LinkedIn ranks behind Facebook and Instagram for B2B purchase research, but ahead of Twitter and Pinterest.

    But remember from the LinkedIn stats above that LinkedIn reaches some of the top decision makers out there, so those who do use it for purchase research represent a very valuable audience.

    35. Brands get 7x more reactions and 24x more comments on LinkedIn Live streams than regular video

    We already saw that LinkedIn video posts get more engagement than regular posts. But Live video takes things up a further notch, with impressively high engagement levels, especially for comments.

    That high comment rate shows people are engaged during the live video stream and waiting to interact with the participants.

    36. Companies that post weekly on LinkedIn see a 2x higher engagement rate

    Don’t think you can just let your LinkedIn Company Page sit there idle. You need to regularly share updates if you want to maintain a high engagement rate on LinkedIn. The good news is you only need to post once a week to achieve that higher engagement level.

    Our research shows that the best day to post on LinkedIn is Wednesday for B2B brands, or Monday and Wednesday for B2C brands.

    37. Companies with a complete, active LinkedIn Page see 5x more page views

    They also get 7x more impressions per follower and 11x more clicks per follower. Like the LinkedIn company page statistic above, this shows the value of keeping your LinkedIn page up-to-date and active.

    38. More than half of U.S. marketers will use LinkedIn in 2021

    This is the first year that LinkedIn will pass the 50% milestone, according to eMarketer estimates.

    Source: eMarketer

    Note that this specifically excludes companies using LinkedIn only for recruiting purposes. This represents marketing efforts on LinkedIn. If you’re not marketing on this network, you’ll be in the minority by the end of this year.

    Easily manage your LinkedIn Page alongside your other social channels using Hootsuite. From a single platform you can schedule and share content—including video—engage your network, and boost top-performing content. Try it today.

    Get Started


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